Since the word "survive" contains more than one meaning, it may be necessary to translate different definition to different Chinese word.
verb (used without object), survived, surviving.
- to remain alive after the death of someone, the cessation of something, or the occurrence of some event; continue to live:
Few survived after the holocaust.
In definition (1), there is no simple translation for " to remain alive after the death of someone" but for "continue to live" , the translation would be 生還; 存活
Few survived after the holocaust (大屠殺之後很少人生還/存活)
- to remain or continue in existence or use:
Ancient farming methods still survive in the Middle East.
In definition (2), the translation would be 留存; 保存
- to get along or remain healthy, happy, and unaffected in spite of some occurrence:
She's surviving after the divorce.
No simple translation for definition (3)
She's surviving after the divorce (離婚後她繼續正常地生活下去)
verb (used with object), survived, surviving.
- to continue to live or exist after the death, cessation, or occurrence of:
His wife survived him. He survived the operation.
In definition (4), there's no simple translation for the first example sentence. For the second example sentence, the translation would be 挺過
- to endure or live through (an affliction, adversity, misery, etc.):
She's survived two divorces.
In definition (5), the translation would be 挺過
The sentence in the question "I survived the typhoon” is similar to the example sentence in definition (4): He survived the operation. which means survived should be translated to 挺過了
He survived the operation (他挺過了手術)
I survived the typhoon (我挺過了颱風)
"I survived the typhoon”
Unlike " to survive" in English, the Chinese verb 生存，生還，脫險 and 存活 do not act on object. You cannot say 我生還了颱風 or 我脫險了颱風
For verb that can act on an object like typhoon (颱風) , you can use "挺過"
"我挺過了颱風" (I survived/ endured the typhoon)
"這建築物挺過了三次戰爭" (this building survived / endured three wars)