1) “很久”+verb：Generally speaking, the "verb" is usually a negative one (not + verb) in the English meaning, in this structure, this means the "The state of the negative verb lasts for a long time/ages."
A typical example is:
我很久没有住在这里了。(I haven't lived here for a long time或者It's for ages since I left here.) And we DON'T SAY "我很久住在这里了".
However, sometimes when you see “很久才……”, this MUST BE ADDED before a verb (positive/negative), meaning "After a long time, Someone (begins) to do something"：
i. 他很久才吃饭 (It's been a long time before he began to have breakfast).
ii. 他很久才告诉我真相（It's been a long time before he told me the truth）
2）S+verb+……+很久：The verb can be positive or negative, this still means "for a long time/ages".
i.我住在这里很久了。(It's been a long time since I began to live here).
ii.我不玩游戏很久了。(It's been a long time since I stopped playing games).
3）As for "整天", this is much easier to learn and use. This is PURELY an adverb to modify a durable verb that means "The state of the verb lasts for all the day"：
他整天陪我玩(He's playing with me all the day)