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What is the difference between this two constructions:

S + 没有 + V and S + 没 + V

E.g. 我没有输 and 我没输

As it was mentioned by @user6065 grammars, e.g. 实用现代汉语语法 make no difference between meaning and usage of adverbs 没 and 没有, is there any difference in intonation the usage of 没有 has? May be one is preferable in spoken/in written/in official usage?

  • grammars, e.g. 实用现代汉语语法 make no difference between meaning and usage of adverbs 没 and 没有 – user6065 Jan 24 '17 at 11:07
  • Evidently there is the special case of V=有,"实用现代汉语语法"常用副词的用法,十五、不、没(有)(二)没(有)"没"或"没有"可用于否定存在、领有以及动作行为的发生、完成。1。否定存在、领有。例如:(1)我没有汽车、没有洋房,算什么大款?(肯定式:有汽车、有洋房)(2)屋子里没有人,好像发生了什么事情。(肯定式:有人)(3)你看,院子里没有一点儿东西,都搬走了。(肯定式:有东西)2。否定动作行为的发生或完成。例如:(1)昨天没下雪。(2)以前,我没学过汉语。(3)那次会议我们没派人参加。(4)那次去泰山,我们没有看到日出的奇景。(5)我没听说过这样的事情。(6)都10点多了,爸爸还没有回来。(7)我还没有接到回信呢。(8)已经十二月了,河里的水还没有结冰。当"没有"用在谓语动词或谓语形容词前时,是副词。当"没有"用在名词、数量词前时,"没"是副词,"有"是动词,其后的名词或数量词语是宾语。 – user6065 Jan 24 '17 at 16:50
  • Many vocabularies has a shortened form. 探望 -> 探,知道 -> 知,前往 -> 往. The meaning is not changed, but there are some subtle differences on rules to use it. – 超酷爆帅型男 Jan 25 '17 at 5:08
3

[沒+ X(v)] is the negative form of [有+ X(v)] (replace 有 with 沒)

Example:

[殺人] (did not kill someone)

[殺人]( have killed someone / did kill someone)

*Replace with

[沒有+ X(v)] is also the negative form of [有+X(v)] (add 沒 before 有)

Example:

[有殺人] (did not kill someone)

[有殺人]( have killed someone / did kill someone)

*Add before 有

Simply put, 沒 can be used as the shortened form of 沒有

You can also see it as: "to turn [有+ X(v)] into negative, you can either replace with or add before 有"

2

It seems to me 沒有 is more formal, and 沒 is ellipsis form. I don't think they exhibit difference in usage, though. Note that 沒有 may either be "do not have/possess" (something) or "not" (adverb), depending on context. Chinese is pretty vague sometimes. Lastly, remark that, following the instance 有殺人, “有” is not mandatory and serves as a stressing word.

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