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In the Chinese wikipedia entry for Julius Caesar (the play), there is this sentence:

凯撒死后,布鲁塔斯进行演讲为自己辩护,这时他得到了公众的支持

Firstly, 进行演讲 means "to make a speech"/"to carry out a speech". Why is 了 not placed after the verb 进行? I suspect it is because the sentence is not finished and the tendency is to place 了 after the final verb in the sentence (in this case, 得到), but please tell me if I'm wrong.

Secondly, I don't understand when 了 is meant to come after the verb or at the end of the sentence. E.g. what is the difference between 这时他得到了公众的支持 and 这时他得到公众的支持了?

  • re 1stly: cf."实用现代汉语语法"第373页:在一个叙述连续动作、事件的句子里,只要后面的分句中有动态助词"了",前面的动态助词"了"一般都可以省去。(1)他站起来开门迎了出去。在这个句子里。"了"管辖"站起来"、"开门"和"迎出去"。(2)傍晚,我照样去替朱经理买小吃,照样买一块腐乳酱方送到了奶奶的床前。在这个句子里,"了"管辖"照样去替朱经理买小吃"、"照样买一块腐乳酱方"和"送到了奶奶的床前"。(3)最后,他退后一步,闪电般地联想了一下柳先生和母亲。(4)会上,他主动承担责任,取得了群众的谅解。i.e. grammar agrees with OP's conclusion re 2ndly: difference between aspect (动态)了 and modal(语气)了 has been discussed countless times before at this site. – user6065 Feb 19 '17 at 23:22
  • re 1stly continuing quoting from "实用现代汉语语法":上述句子的第一个分句的动词后可以加上动态助词"了"。例如:(1)'他站了起来,开了门‌,​迎了出去。(2)'傍晚,‌​我照样去替朱经理买了小吃,照样买了一块腐乳酱‌​方送到了奶奶的床前。3‌​)'最后,他退了后一步,闪电般地联想了一下柳‌​先生和母亲。(4)'会上,他主动承担了责任,‌​取得了群众的谅解。前边的句子里前几个动词后没有"了",句子显得紧凑,语气急促;动词后都加上"了"时,增加了一些停顿,句子语气就变得舒缓了。(5)田汉不得不失望地脱下了刚刚穿上不到三个月的军装,考入了革命空气甚浓而又不收学费的长沙师范学校。田汉不得不失望地脱下刚刚穿上不到三个月的军装,考入了革命空气甚浓而又不收学费的长沙师范学校。(6)他苦笑了一下,轻轻地摇了摇头。他苦笑一下,轻轻地摇了摇头。并列动词作谓语,通常只在第二个动词后用动态助词"了",也属于这种情况。例如:(1)大会讨论并通过了今年的生产计划。(2)通过这次互相访问,巩固并加强了两国人民的友谊。这种句子在第一个动词后也可以加上动态助词"了",那样在第一个"了"之后就出现了一个明显的停顿:1)'大会讨论了,并通过了今年的生产计划。(2)'通过这次互相访问,巩固了,并加强了两国人民的友谊。 – user6065 Feb 20 '17 at 14:53
  • 句末有语气助词"了"时,如果没有特别的需要(参见下文"两个'了'的连用"),动态助词"了"一般都省去,这是因为语气助词"‌​了"管辖了前面的动词。例如:(1)A:你‌​在我们这儿吃点儿吧。B:不客气,我吃饭了‌​。(如果更强调"吃"已经发生,可以说:我‌​吃了饭了)(2)A:你怎么不敲门?里边有‌​人。B:刚才我敲门了,可是没有人答应。(‌​如果更强调"敲"已经发生,可以说:刚才我‌​敲了门了) (2)动词后结果补语或趋向补语,只要句子中有一个成分可以显示出动作状态已发生、已出现,句子中的"了"就可以省去。例如:(1)有一天,仿佛黑夜里亮起一道闪电,他突然想起了鲁迅先生。(2)放下电话,我的思想飞驰起来。仿佛又回到了南南出生时那战火纷飞的革命岁月。(3)最后他亲自把礼物送过去,又遭到了那个女孩子的拒绝。上述句子的"了"可以省去:(1)'有一天,仿佛黑夜里亮起一道闪电,他突然想起鲁迅先生。这是因为"有一天"表示"过去",一个过去有了结果的动作,当然已经发生了,所以表示动作发生的"了"可以省去。下面两个例子也一样:(2)'放下电话,我的思想飞驰起来。仿佛又回到南南出生时那战火纷飞的革命岁月。(这个句子里显然表示过去 -- "那战火粉飞的岁月")(3)'最后他亲自把礼物送过去,又遭到那个女孩子的拒绝。有时为了强调几个动作都已发生或完成,或在排比的句子里, – user6065 Feb 20 '17 at 19:10
  • 也可以在每个动补短语或动词后都用"了"。例如: (4)八十年代,由于实行改革开放政策,我们搞活了经济,打开了国门,扩大了外贸出口,提高了综合国力,也大大提高了人民的生活水平。(5)喜讯传到了北京,传到了祖国的每一个地方。关于补语后"了"的使用,参见第三编第五章第二节"趋向补语"。(3)主语为第三人称时,有时也可以省去动态助词"了"。例如:(1)昨天他给我一本书那本书很有用。(2)今天上课的时候张老师问我一个问题,我回答不上来,很丢人。(3)老师,他骂我。能这样省略动态助词"了"的用法很有限,第(1)、(2)两个例子都是双宾语词,而且有后续句;第(3)个例子是学生想老师告状。但是主语是第一、二人称时,一般不能这样用。 – user6065 Feb 20 '17 at 19:10
  • @user6065 Text without formatting is hard to read. Could you please make a separate answer instead of comments? – 米好 '-' Feb 20 '17 at 22:33
1

My take on this is that, as you say, the aspectual 了 is placed after the final verb of the sentence, but I'm not aware of the existence of a hard rule for that. I would say it is mainly a matter of style. Maybe there are linguists here who can confirm this.

As for how to use 了 and where to position it in a sentence, this has been asked many times and you can find some pretty good and accepted answers here: Tense and use of 了

what is the difference between 这时他得到了公众的支持 and 这时他得到公众的支持了

The first one 这时他得到了公众的支持 is describing a completed action and sets the time in the past --> That time he obtained the support of the crowd.

The second one 这时他得到公众的支持了 describes a change of state (and tells nothing about time) --> This time he's got the support of the crowd.
Which implies that he usually doesn't have it.
However, since this last one example describes a change, the sentence with 得到 - which I perceive as a punctual event - plus the absence of a context sounds a bit weird to me.

So I'd prefer the first version any way.

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