5

What is the difference between 怎么 and 怎么样 ?

It seems like both mean something like "how". I also see that 怎么样 is often used to ask someone's opinion on something.

In what contexts can 怎么 be used and when can 怎么样 be used?

Are there any grammatical differences?

  • on when 怎么 means "how", when "why" see 2 previous Q chinese.stackexchange.com/questions/12681/… chinese.stackexchange.com/questions/8978/… – user6065 Feb 23 '17 at 17:24
  • see grammar on interrogative pronouns, e,g."实用现代汉语语法":第二编|第二章|代词|四、怎么、怎么样、怎样 "怎么"、"怎么样"、"怎样"是副词性疑问代词,即所谓"代副词"。这三个词的用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。(一)怎么1。"怎么"可以询问动作的方式。例如:(1)小赵,这个汉字怎么写?(2)你是怎么来的,坐车来的还是骑车来的?(3)怎么做好,去好还是不去好?(4)他怎么对待你?客气吗?2。"怎么"可用来询问原因。例如:(1)你眼睛怎么红了?(2)你怎么这么晚才来?(3)你怎么没去看电影?(4)你怎么还去参加比赛?(5)这封信怎么又退回来了?(6)教室里怎么这么乱?(7)他怎么那样对待他的妻子了?(8)他怎么能走,我怎么不能走?"怎么"也可以用在主语前:(1)怎么你又迟到了?(2)怎么大家都不说话?"怎么"和"为什么"比较:"怎么"问原因时含有明显的奇怪、惊讶、诧异的因素,而"为什么"的功能主要是问原因,可能包含奇怪的因素,但那不是主要的。因此,如果问话人只想知道答案,没有任何诧异成分时,只能用"为什么"。比如在物理教科书的联系中有一个问题可能是"物体在水中为什么会有浮力?"这个问题不能用"物体在水中怎么会有浮力?"来问。老师上课提问,也一定用"为什么"。相反,当一个小孩子看见一只正在飞的鸟,面对自己不会飞感到很奇怪时, – user6065 Feb 23 '17 at 18:14
  • @user6065 Unfortunately, I don't speak Chinese so well that I am able to understand this (I got this question while studying for my HSK1 exam). Would you be able to provide a translation? – wythagoras Feb 23 '17 at 18:22
  • 他可以用"妈妈,鸟儿怎么会飞呀?"或"妈妈,我怎么不会飞呀?"。有时"怎么"只表示奇怪:(1)怎么,你不同意?(2)怎么‌​,你后悔了?3。"怎么"可以问事物的性状‌​。例如:(1)这是怎么一回事?(2)你说‌​说,他姐姐是怎么一个人?(3)那次实验是‌​怎么一种情况,你给大家说说?用"怎么"询‌​问性状时,后面要跟量词。在"怎么"与量词‌​中可加"一",也可不加"一"。4。"不怎‌​么+动词/形容词"表示不高的程度。例如:‌​(1)这次我考得不怎么好,下次一定努力。‌​(2)我觉得学汉语不怎么难,特别是会话。‌​(3)我不怎么认识路,我一边开车,你一边‌​给我指路好吗?(二)怎么样、怎样"怎么样"和"怎样"的意思和基本一样,口语里"怎么样"比"怎样"用得多。1。问动作的方式。例如:(1)写毛笔字怎么样拿笔?(2)你们是怎么样找到他的?(3)钢铁是怎样炼成的?(前苏联奥斯特洛夫斯基著长篇小说)问方式时,"怎么"比"怎样"和"怎么样"更常用。2。问性状:"怎么样"、"怎样"问性状常常用谓语,补语。例如:(1)我累了,走不动了,你怎么样(怎样)?(2)旅行的路线就这样安排,怎么样?(3)奶奶的病怎么样了?好点儿吧?(4)明天去参加汉语水平测试,你准备怎么样了?(5)这里的环境你认为怎么样?(6)你看怎么样,就这样定下来吧。"怎么"也可以问性状,作谓语,但包含奇怪、诧异的成分。 – user6065 Feb 23 '17 at 23:26
  • 例如:(1)小红你怎么了,哪儿不舒服?(2)他怎么啦?为什么不让他参加这个会?(3)我怎么你了,你这么不高兴?(4)你怎么着?别的人都表态了,就剩你了。"怎么样"、"怎样"问性状时还可以做定语。例如:(1)你在那里过的是怎样(怎么样)的一种生活?(2)新来的小伙子是怎样(怎么样)的一个人?(3)你在现场看到的是怎样(怎么样)的一种情况?(4)唉,你这话会引起别人怎么样的议论呢?"怎么"也可以作定语描写性状。例如:(1)这是怎么一回事?(2)你说说,他姐姐是怎么一个人?(3)当时到底是怎么一种情况,我现在记不清楚了。描写性状时,"怎么"与"怎么样"、"怎样"有以下不同:(1)"怎么"没有"怎么样","怎样"更常用,用的范围不广。(2)"怎么"后面一定要有"一"和量词,"怎么样"、"怎样"后常常有量词,可以没有用"一",有时也可以没有量词,如前面例(4)。(3)"怎么样"有时不表示疑问,而表示话人对某人或事物的看法或评论。在句中可作谓语、补语、定语,总是用否定形式"不怎么样",意思是"不太好"、"没达到某一标准"或"不理想"。例如:(1)这里的天气真不怎么样,变化无偿。(谓语)(2)那个人不怎么样,太自私,一事当前,总先为自己打算。(谓语)(3)你别看他穿着不怎么样,一肚子学问呢。(谓语)(4)晚会上,有几个节目淹得不怎么样。(补语)(5)这篇文章写得不怎么样。(补语) – user6065 Feb 23 '17 at 23:33
3

怎么 is an interrogative substitute that means "how (and sometimes "why"):

这个问题,我们应该怎么解决? How are we supposed to solve this problem?

And you use it as what it is: a substitute. You put in the same place that another adverb/complement of manner would occupy in the sentence, in order to make it the sentence a question.
In the example above you could replace 怎么 with some element that specifies the manner and have an affirmative statement back:

这个问题,我们应该想办法解决 We should find a way to solve this problem.


怎么样 is a phrase. 怎么 how as I said above is used as a substitute of a adverb/complement, therefore it should precede something else. In 怎么样 you have 怎么 preceding 样, which here works as a generic "manner" about which you are asking how. Therefore, 怎么样 means "How is it" or "How about it" or literally "In what way", and can be used as a self-sufficient phrase.

你好,今天怎么样? Hi, how is it today?
那你说怎么样才行! Then you tell me in what way this'll be okay!

10

There are good explanations on the Web. I do not think I should copy them here. Please check 怎麼 and 怎麼樣.

In addition, there is a good article (pdf format) published by an associate professor, 蔡維天. I copy the abstract here.

本文的題旨在於討論漢語疑問副詞的一個歧義現象:「怎麼」有時可當成「為甚麼」來用,如「她怎麼沒來?」。這種用法主要出現在助動詞之前,應屬句子頂層結構的一種現象。我們認為此處「怎麼」其實是整個句子的述語,問的是這個句子所表達事件的來由。相較之下,位於助動詞和動詞之間的「怎麼(樣)」則為修飾動詞組的狀語,表一個動作的樣貌或途徑。動詞之後的「怎麼樣」則為整個句子的補語,問的是事件的結果。從本體論的觀點來看,「怎麼」、「怎麼樣」在句法結構上的高低分布正反映出一種因果關係,也就是助動詞前的「怎麼」表「前因」,動詞後的「怎麼樣」表「後果」;中間則夾著表樣貌、途徑的「怎麼(樣)」。若以句法-語意介面的角度觀之,凡此種種不同的語意解釋正是由於「怎麼」、「怎麼樣」所處的句法層次不同,而產生的結果:也就是說,表原因的「怎麼」修飾事件,是整個句子的述語;表結果的「怎麼樣」修飾動作結束後的狀態,是動詞組內的補語;表樣貌、途徑「怎麼(樣)」則修飾動作本身,是動詞組的狀語,而和主語的主體意識(agentivity)相關。此外,表原因的「怎麼」在句法上的分布也和「為甚麼」相當一致,可採「無擇約束」(unselective binding)及「相對性近距原則」(relativized minimality)等概念加以規範。

The aim of this paper is to examine an ambiguity of Chinese wh-adverbs: zenme ‘how’ is sometimes construed as causal rather than method or manner, as in Ta zenme mei lai?‘Why didn’t she come?’ We show that causal zenme typically appears before modals, behaving very much like a matrix predicate. By contrast, its postmodal counterparts are interpreted as method or manner preverbally, and as result postverbally. From the viewpoint of ontology, the structural distribution of zenme(yang)embodies a “cause-effect” relation, and in-between, we have agent-sensitive concepts such as method and manner. In terms of the syntax-semantics interface, it is demonstrated that the various interpretations of zenme(yang)are conditioned by the syntactic projections it occurs in. Namely, premodal zenme takes the whole sentence as its comple- ment, which corresponds to an event. This results in the causal reading. Postverbal zenmeyang, on the other hand, serves as a complement to VP, corresponding to a resultant state. Hence the resultative reading. Furthermore, when method/manner zenme(yang)serves as a VP-adverbial, it modifies an action, thus sensitive to subject agentivity. Finally, we find that causal zenme actually patterns with weishenme ‘why’ with respect to their syntactic behav- ior, which can be accounted for by adopting the notion of unselective binding and relativized minimality.

0

怎么 = how. example: 怎么解决这个问题? how should this problem be solved.

怎么样 = 1, how are (you) doing.

example: 你最近怎么样 how are you doing lately?

2, how about

example: 你的新工作怎么样? how about your new job?

3, so what?

example: 是,我撒谎了,哪又怎么样?yes, I lied, so what?

-1

Something like the difference between how (to) and how/what about.

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