2

赞成 to approve; to endorse; (literary) to assist

赞同 to approve of; to endorse; (vote) in favor

There is a forum where a native speaker suggests that 赞成 has an added meaning of 'help' (as in the definitions) and 赞同 is associated with participation

Another response suggests that 赞成 is used with plans and proposals and 赞同 is used with ideas and methods

3

Both 赞成 and 赞同 mean: 'approve / support/ agree'

But there's a subtle difference:

[赞同] = [赞成(agree/support) + 同意(agree/have the same idea)] * Therefore, 赞同 has the added meaning of 'be convinced'

  • When you 赞成 (approve / support) an idea, you may or may not be totally convinced. For example, you can vote 赞成 on an issue because most people in your group have voted 赞成 already.

  • When you say you 赞同 an idea, that indicates you have been convinced (to have the same idea as the other's).

  • you can 'reluctantly agree' (勉强赞成); you cannot 'reluctantly agree and be convinced' (勉强赞同)

  • There can be 投票赞成 (vote to support) ; There can't be 投票赞同 (vote to support and agree)

1
  • re:cannot 勉强赞同,cf. jukuu 他勉强地表示赞同,说这很困难。 can't be 投票赞同 jukuu: 国际奥委会投票赞同亚特兰大好像是不可能的,因为美国在洛杉矶举办1984年奥运会才刚刚3年。对这项运动上投赞同票;投票反对提案 more examples for 投赞同票 on web
    – user6065
    May 4 '17 at 19:37

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