1

「我於五受陰觀察非我、非我所,而非阿羅漢者,我於我慢、我欲、我使,未斷、未知、未離、未吐。」

The above is translated by a Ven. Anālayo as "‘I examine these five aggregates of clinging as not self and not belonging to the self, yet I am not an arahant, with the influxes being eradicated. I have not yet abandoned the ‘I am’ conceit, the desire [related to the notion] ‘I am’, and the underlying tendency towards ‘I am’, have not yet [fully] understood it, not yet become sepa­rated from it, not yet vomited it out.’”

If possible, I would like to know how 所 in 非我所 implies "and not belonging to the self"?

2

According to Wikipedia:

我所包括我的财富资产、我的眷属(父母、伴侣、子女、亲友)、我的成就、我的世间智慧能力、我的名声等。

我所:意指“我的所有”。

我所 means 我的所有 or my everything or anything that belongs to me. 非 means not, thus 非我所 implies not belonging to me

2

我所 is the short form of 我所有.

Sanskrit: ममकारः mamakāraḥ

《丁福保:佛學大辭典》 (Ding Fubao's Dictionary of Buddhist Studies)
「我所有」之略。
自身為「我」,自身外之萬物謂為「我所有」。

The world can be devided to two parts. One part is 我, self, and the other one is 我所有, everything else except self.

《Soothill-Hodous Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms》
我所有; 我所事
Mine, personal, subjective;
personal conditions, possessions, or anything related to the self.

0

◎ 所 suǒ 〈形〉 (1) 一切,所有 [all]。如:所事(亦作“所是”。凡事,事事);所有品(所占有的东西);所是(所有)

so, 所 means possession here.

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