In the following sentence:


In the sentence bold above, if I understand it correctly, the meaning is something like the follows:

The parts have been upgraded to more robust ones and to some extent optimized.

However, I don't understand the grammartical structure of the bold part. Specifically, what I don't understand are:

  • What does 零部件 (parts) modify via 的? Is there something omitted here? For me 更换 seems to be a verb so it is awkward that 零部件的 modify it.

  • 以及 means "as well as", and works as a conjugate. But what does it concatenate here with what?

  • How does 上 work here?

2 Answers 2



零部件=(mechanical, electrical, etc) part; 更换 = replace/replacement (it can be a noun), so 零部件的更换 = replacement of parts

坚固性= ruggedness

Have you noticed the structure 在...上 used here? It means "with respect to; regarding; in terms of", so the sentence may be split into (I think 零部件的 modifies 更换以及坚固性 here):


There are some optimizations regarding the replacement and ruggedness of parts.


I would render your sentence like this:

Previously, Mobike attached importance to its distinct orange colour,
the newly released models have changed to white.
both the replacement of components and their durability have been improved.

As Huang先生 says in his reply, 在 ... 上 is a common collocation. Sometimes you can translate it as 'in' or 'on' or 'concerning', but sometimes that doesn't really fit. Very often you see: 在历史上 = in history. An example:


在历史上的前身 here translates something like 'historical antecedents'

1 is 零部件的更换 and 2 is 坚固性: 1 以及 2

Literally in your sentence we have:

in (在) component's (的) replacement
as well as solidness on (上) also have some improvement.

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