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Like "I played this game earlier." I'm indicating a time about a few hours ago. 过去和以前seem like too long ago. I guess I could say 几个小时前but in Cantonese there's 头先 which is shorter and I want to convey the same meaning. Like when I'm talking to someone and referring to an experience we shared a short while ago like "你头先说的是对的”。

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"头先" means just now; a moment ago in Cantonese. It is the counterpart of 剛才,剛剛 in Mandarin.

You can use 头先 if few hours is considered a short time in the situation.

If few hours is considered a long time in the situation, it is better to simply say: "几个钟头之前" (few hours ago)

"你头先说的是对的”

It is "頭先你講得啱" or "頭先你講得冇錯" in Cantonese

The sentence in this context implies a very short time has passed-- within the length of a short conversation.

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There are several expressions which could fit the context. However, since I'm not a linguist, I'm not sure how to precisely describe the grammar here.

Examples:

I have played this game earlier.
我最近/刚刚玩过这款游戏。(Choose "刚刚" if it happened just minutes or an hour ago, choose "最近" if it was days ago)

Your earlier words are correct.
你先前/早先/刚才的话是对的。(If it was just moments ago, both are correct. Otherwise, choose "先前/早先" instead of "刚才")

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