1

According to this page, 給 usually precedes the verb.

On this page, it says 給 sometimes follows the verb, and often these exceptions are single-syllable verbs.

1) Is there a list of these exceptions somewhere? If not, are there suggested rules for knowing when 給 should follow a verb instead of precede it?

2) The two pages lists conflicting examples for 發. One example lists 發 as preceding the verb; the other lists 發 as following the verb.

Preceding: 请 把 那些 照片 都 发给 我

Following: 我 给 你 发 了 一 封 邮件

Is there a mistake in these examples, or can 發 both precede and follow a verb? If both, when does it precede and when does it follow?

  • 请给我发那些照片 and 我发了一封邮件给你 are also correct. I found nowhere to place the "都" in the first sentence though. – fefe Nov 23 '17 at 7:28
  • some grammars (e.g. CCG) classify 给 when used in conjunction with another verb as a "coverb", others: 对、向、自、到. 给 is among the type "for(somebody)--beneficiary": examples: 我给哥哥写了一封回信。快给他赔个不是。你能给我们当翻译吗?替、同、为。As a general rule, coverbs occur before the main verb (here 发)in the sentence. However, where a coverb indicates location or direction, it may come after the verb. For example, within the category with meaning "in the direction of",向 and 往 may be used before or after the main verb, while most of the others occur only pre-verbally. Coverbal positions....there are situations – user6065 Nov 23 '17 at 8:32
  • where the actions in the main verb must be carried out first before a particular location or point is reached. E.g. 放, to put, and 走,to walk,lead to new locations or destinations, e.g. 他把衣服放在床上。他游到对岸。With intransitive verbs, a subject may locate itself in a place before the action and remain in the same place afterwards, so that starting and end positions of the subject coincide....no difference between pre-verbal and post-verbal phrase. E.g. 他在北京住。他住在北京。蝴碟在花丛中飞舞。蝴碟飞舞在花丛中。Some coverbs, such as 给 may function as independent verbs, in fact dictionaries list 发给 as a verb on its own: – user6065 Nov 23 '17 at 8:33
  • (1) [deal; distribute; deliver]∶分给 发给每个人三个夹馅面包 (2) [let; send out]∶指在要求、 投标或出价之后判给或分给 发给某人的伐木权 – user6065 Nov 23 '17 at 8:34
  • "实用现代汉语于法"in chapter on 介词,prepositions, has a small section on prepositions as complements (see answers):(三)作补语:(1)鲁迅生 1881年。(2)我们从胜利走 胜利。(3)约翰来 美国南部的一个城市。(4)我一定要把你送 飞机场,以后很难在见面了。(5)他想把"友谊"两个字绣 一快红布上。(6)这趟火车是开 上海方向的。能充当补语的介词只有"于"、"向"、"自"、"到"、"在"、"给"、"往"等少数几个。 – user6065 Nov 24 '17 at 16:50
4

You can place 给:

  • before the main verb when it's used as a preposition (usually "to")
  • after the main verb when it expresses the result of an action

In the first case you are not expressing the result of the action, just the target of the action:

照片,我给你已经发好了 --- I already sent you the pictures (to you)

你打算什么时候给你父母介绍你的女朋友 --- When do you plan to introduce your girlfriend to your parents?

我不知道怎样给我的领导提建议 --- I don't know how to provide suggestions to my boss


In the other case you are expressing a result that stems from the main action, and you can find some implied temporal order in it, sometimes explicitly marked by other particles:

照片,我已经发给你了 --- I've sent you the pictures (results in you having them)

申请单必须提交给商务局批准 --- The request form must be submitted to the commerce bureau for approval (results in them having it; which leads to the approval)


I don't think you can find an exhaustive list of the verbs that support either construction. What you can do is to consider whether 给 expresses a target or a consequence/order. For verbs that support both, usage depends on what meaning you want to emphasize. In your examples:

Preceding: 请 你 把 那些 照片 发给 我 --- (result of sending: I have the pictures)
Following: 我 给 你 发 了 一 封 邮件 --- (target of sending: you, not someone else)

  • This explanation seems to conflict with @Tang Ho's answer because he says before the verb, 给 usually acts as "for" whereas you say 给 usually acts as "to." How to reconcile these conflicting answers? – Crashalot Nov 23 '17 at 23:55
  • Thank you for taking the time to provide such a detailed answer! – Crashalot Nov 23 '17 at 23:56
  • 1
    There's no conflict really, depending on the main verb sometimes in English it gets translated into "for". If you take Tang Ho's example 给你煮晚饭 in English "cook for" is surely more correct than "cook to", however you could as well say "I cook you dinner" in a ditransitive construction. So you can still see how 给 expresses a target. You also don't want to confuse it with the English "for" that means advantage or purpose, as in "I work for you", in that case you would write 为你煮晚饭 – blackgreen Nov 24 '17 at 5:51
2

1) Is there a list of these exceptions somewhere? If not, are there suggested rules for knowing when 給 should follow a verb instead of precede it?

The answer is there is no rule for that purpose, because one could be paraphrased to the other.

For example:

我给你发了一封邮件 can be paraphrased as 我发了一封邮件给你.

现在不要给他打电话 can be paraphrased as 现在不要打电话给他.

昨天他送给老师一束花 can be paraphrased as 昨天他送一束花给老师.

As you can see, the two structures(preceding and following) are interchangeable.

2) The two pages lists conflicting examples for 發.

One example lists 發 as preceding the verb; the other lists 發 as following the verb.

Preceding: 请把那些照片都发给我

Following: 我给你发了一封邮件

As I point out, both structures are interchangeable(though 把 is used in the first sentence). So the two sentences can be paraphrased as:

请把那些照片都给我发过来 or 请发给我那些照片

我发了一封邮件给你

1
  1. When 給 precede a verb and then the final particle 了 , it means 'be'

Example: 杀害了 = be killed

  1. When 給 follow a verb, it acts as a result complement 'to'

Example: 交你 = hand (it) to you

  1. When 給 precede a subject then a verb, it means 'for'

Example:

"給我走" = "go away, for me" (it is actually a command, not a request)

"給你煮晚餐" = "cook dinner for you"

Is there a mistake in these examples, or can 發 both precede and follow a verb? If both, when does it precede and when does it follow?

"给你发邮件" mainly mean "send mail to you" but it can mean "send mail for you" if followed by an object that's not you, e.g. "给你发邮件到法院"

  • In your first example, 給 seems to act like 被. Is that a valid way to see it? – Crashalot Nov 23 '17 at 23:41
  • This explanation seems to conflict with @TXV's answer because you say before the verb, 给 usually acts as "for" whereas he says 给 usually acts as "to." How to reconcile these conflicting answers? – Crashalot Nov 23 '17 at 23:56
  • 1. In "給我走" , it is [ 給 (preposition-' for') + 我(object- 'me') + 走(verb- 'go') = "go, for me" (a command) 2. In "給我錢" , it is [ 給 (verb-' give') + 我( indirect object- 'me') + 錢(direct object- 'money') = "give me money" The The key to tell which '給' (for or to) we are looking at, is to see either a verb or a noun follow it. – Tang Ho Nov 24 '17 at 0:17
  • Yes 給(be) here acts similarly to 被(by); "給杀害了"= "be killed" (subject omitted); "被 (subject) 杀害了" = "be killed by (subject)" – Tang Ho Nov 24 '17 at 0:25
  • 1
    给我走 is an imperative sentence, meaning 你给我走, I let/order you out! or just get out! – dan Nov 24 '17 at 4:16

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