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What’s the difference between 円 and 月 as character components?

If we look at 青 and 靑.

The bottom of 青 is:

and if we look at 靑, it's bottom is:

靑 is said to be an 异体字 of 青 and zisea says that

拼音qing1【青】的旧字型

just old form.

What’s the difference between 円 and 月 as character components?

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and are both graphical corruptions. The original form of the character did not have those components.

/ was originally comprised of (sprouting plant) and , which gave the sound. The bronze script form looked like

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In ancient scripts, 井 as a component was frequently interchanged with . The graphical form of 丹 originated as 井 plus a small horizontal stroke in the middle. See, for example, the oracle bone forms

井:

enter image description here

丹:

enter image description here

In 靑/青, this happened as well:

enter image description here

On the bottom part, the form which came from 井 morphed to 月, while the form which came from 丹 morphed to 円.

Note that the top has actually been written with several similar components; you may find 青 variously written with 屮/生/木 on the top in ancient times. For clarification, the bronze script forms shown here actually contains , but 生 ultimately comes from 屮 with the addition of two horizontal strokes.

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