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I have been watching a TV show set in Beijing where many of the characters keep saying things like 你別打狗了你 (probably a bad example), putting a seemingly redundant at the end. What is this used for? Is it used outside of Beijing?

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It is widely used across China, but I think it is mainly used in the northern part of China, maybe Beijing, I'm not sure.

你...你 in this case is not different from simply using 你..., but 你...你 could express a stronger tone, or willing.

e.g. 你別打狗了 vs 你別打狗了你, both of them mean Don't beat that dog, but the last one is more urgent and anxious.

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IMO, 你别打狗了你 is more emphatic than just one 你, and you might hear it occasionally in spoken. It connotes that I won't allow you to do so or expressing imperative.

There is another similar expression that puts the subject into the end of a sentence. For example, 别走了你.

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