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I have the sequence X得他 2 times. What confuses me is the 得他。 I think 1. can be rewritten as shown, but in 2. I'm not sure. It seems more like 使得 is just 'make, cause'.

It is said 'after X得 is an adverbial, but how can 他 be part of an adverbial?

吓他: frighten him 使他: make him

  1. 吓得他[拔腿就跑]。 = 他被吓得[拔腿就跑]。

  2. 使得他[闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子],= 他被使得[闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子]

2。 (他)对竹子非常熟悉,使得他闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子,因此他画的竹子徐徐如生,远近闻名。

使得: 某事物引起一定的结果: make

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cause : (他)对竹子非常熟悉

effect: 他闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子

使得 can express causal relation. If you read the sentence this way, maybe it is more comprehensive.

Example 1: 热使得气体膨胀 Heat makes gases expand, where:

cause :

effect: 气体膨胀

Example 2: 因为你的说明,使得我弄清楚怎么一回事 Your explanation makes me clear, where:

cause : 你的说明

effect: 我弄清楚怎么一回事

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  • Do you think 使得 is a word? I'm sure 吓得 is not a word. So now we have: define 'word', sometimes difficult in Chinese! – Pedroski Dec 29 '17 at 22:55
  • You've got the point, and as a native speaker, I usually consider every character as a word, in a sentence. Maybe we can separate 使得 into 使 and 得. 使, make, 得, gain. Therefore, 热使得气体膨胀 means that we make heat, then we gain gases expansion. Moreover, 我吓得他尿裤子, I make him frightened, then I "gain" he pisses on his pants. They could all express causal relation. This is just my personal view, hope it can help you. – Tianjian Qin Dec 30 '17 at 6:32
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得 as a verb particle can be used as:

potential particle (to express possibility or capability)

There are only two potential particles. They are '得'(able) and '不'(unable)

Examples:

  1. 做得來(can do) - 做不來 (can't do)

  2. 看得清(can see clearly) - 看不清(can't see clearly)

resultative/degree particle (to indicate the result or degree)

Examples:

  1. 做得有聲有色 - [做(verb)+ 得(resultative particle)+ 有聲有色 (result/ degree)

  2. 打得他頭破血流 - [打(verb)+ 得(resultative particle)+ 他頭破血流 (result/ degree)

'他' in "我打得他頭破血流" is the object of the phrase

You can replace 他 with any object, for example, "打得約翰頭破血流"

'到' is another resultative particle, as in "打到他頭破血流"

Edit:

but in 2. I'm not sure. It seems more like 使得 is just 'make, cause'.

'使' already indicates 'cause', '得' is redundant if you just want a [cause phrase + effect phrase] structure; - [使他 (cause him to)][闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子]is enough

in [使 (verb + resultative particle)] [他闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子 (result)]

'得' indicates the result or degree of the verb "使"(make); and "他闭上眼睛, 心理就有竹子的影子" is the result or degree of the verb.

Edit 2:

The reason why '得' here is redundant when the verb is '使':

"使()他闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子" = [(cause)+ (to the degree of) + (someone to became/ to do something)] can be expressed without the resultative particle '得'

As in "使他闭上眼睛,心理就有竹子的影子" = [(cause) + (someone to become/ to do something)]

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  • Thanks! So, this (得) is like: 使 - (with the result that) - 他 [ bla bla bla ]. What about in 1.? Is the 得 also redundant? I think in 1. we might even be able to replace 得 with 的, but I don't think we could omit it. – Pedroski Dec 29 '17 at 23:07
  • 吓 in 吓得 他...: is a verb for "to scare" 得 is the resultative/ degree particle and 他.... is the result or degree of the verb 吓. Meaning 1. Scared him to start .... 2. Scared him to the point of .... the particle '得 ' cannot be omitted in this structure – Tang Ho Dec 29 '17 at 23:21

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