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I've read a lot of answers to questions about 比 but I didn't see anything about 跟.

I recently had a class where the 老师, in three days, three hours a day, FLEW through enough material for two weeks if not more. But he also gave me lots of printouts of what we would have gone through in his normal (one month) class.

We spent ten or fifteen minutes comparing things. This is not a "state a grammar rule and then make sure they can apply it" class. More of a "lots of input until it sinks in" class. Which is actually a good method if you have time to give enough input.

ANYWAY, here are four things from the comparisons¹ paper. I have put in the nouns and adjectives randomly where the paper had blanks to fill in. Is there a different in connotation or denotation?

你的衬衫**比**我的衬衫好看。
你的手机**比**我的手机好用。
你的衣服**跟**我的衣服都便宜。
你的房子**跟**我的房子都贵。

I also notice on this site, examples of comparisons¹ are different and shorter than in these handouts, which had only these two formats.

¹As the answers reveal, it wasn’t actually a paper of only comparisons.

  • 跟 in "你的衣服我的衣服都便宜"。 and "你的房子我的房子都贵"。is not 'compare to' but 'also/and' – Tang Ho Jan 27 '18 at 14:26
  • 跟 has nothing to do with comparison. It means 'and', and you can interchange 跟 in those comparison sentences with 和 or 与 without changing meaning at all. – NS.X. Jan 27 '18 at 22:56
  • The primary meaning of 跟 is following, like 请你跟着我 please (you) follow me. But now it also has the meaning with, like 你跟我来 may also means walk with me, all these for that in Chinese the character 和 (the general meaning is and) is one of the meanings of the word with, like 来和我一起玩: come to play with me together. – 賈可 Jacky Jan 29 '18 at 3:52
  • I don't think 跟 has the meaning like that and in English, just because that both 和 and 跟 have the meaning of with in English while 和 in Chinese has the meaning like and in English. – 賈可 Jacky Jan 29 '18 at 4:30
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跟 in "你的衣服我的衣服都便宜"。 and "你的房子我的房子都贵"。is not 'compare to' but 'also/and'

In face, 跟 doesn't contain meaning of 'compare to' .

You thought so because in [X Y 比] ("X compare to Y" ) structure '跟' is always paired with '比'

你的衬衫我的衬衫好看。- = compare to

你的手机我的手机好用。- = compare to

[(item A) (item B) + (adjective)] = [ (item A) compare to (item B) is (adjective)]

~

你的衣服我的衣服都便宜。- = and

你的房子我的房子都贵。- = and

[(item A) (item B) + 都 + (adjective)] = [ (item A) and (item B) are both (adjective)]

~

also notice on this site, examples where the adjective is at the end. There were none like that in the handouts. All were in these two formats.

But the adjective is at the end in this two formats too. 好看, 好用, 便宜 and 贵 are all adjective

~

Add 跟 in a comparisons structure instead of using 比 alone:

(你的衬衫)(我的衬衫), (你的衬衫好看得多)

take (item A) and (item B), and compare, + (opinion/ statement)

Another way to use 比 in a comparisons structure is "compare to A, Y is (opinion/ statement)":

[(比起)(我的衬衫), (你的衬衫)(好看得多)]

[(compare to) (A), (B) (opinion/ statement)]

  • No, I thought so because those sentences were mixed in with comparisons, and because the teacher treated them that way. But there was such a flood of stuff that confusion is no surprise. As for the adjectives, I don't remember what I meant to say, but I'll try to edit it so it makes more sense. – 伟思礼 Jan 27 '18 at 18:11
  • In fact, I had already learned 跟 as 'and' which was part of the problem with trying to read these as comparisons. – 伟思礼 Jan 27 '18 at 18:16
  • then it was the teacher's mistake? – Tang Ho Jan 27 '18 at 20:48
  • I wouldn't call it a mistake. Just not optimal design to introduce them at the same time without some indicator that they are different things. I am accepting this answer, but edit a minor inaccuracy. – 伟思礼 Jan 28 '18 at 4:19
  • Also, since I edited one of my inaccurate statements, what you quoted is no longer in the answer. Not sure how that could be edited. But thanks for the clarification. I had a better grasp of 跟 before, and you have restored it. :-) – 伟思礼 Jan 28 '18 at 4:26
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你的衣服跟我的衣服都便宜

你的衣服和我的衣服都便宜

Compare 跟 and 和 here, 跟 connotes slightly comparison or following. 跟 is more like the same as or following. It's like saying 你的衣服我的衣服一样 都便宜。

Besides the structure xxx 跟 xxx, there are other forms: 跟 xxx and 跟 xxx 比, meaning competing with. For example, 跟我比; 跟我玩; 跟我斗; etc. 跟我玩 sounds like either following me to play or competing with me depending on the context.

  • So my sentences would be “as well as noun is adj” and not “nouns are both adj” ? – 伟思礼 Jan 29 '18 at 3:18
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for comparison insert 一样 before adjective :你的衣服跟我的衣服(都)一样便宜。你的房子跟我的房子(都)一样贵。 "外国人实用汉语语法"第八章 表示比较的方法 第二节 用"跟"表示比较、用介词"跟"表示比较的意思 区别两个人或两种事物的异同,可以用价词"跟"引出比较的对象,再用谓语表示比较的结果。用"跟"表示比较的句子基本格式是:(主语){被比较的人或事物}_____ (状语){介词"跟"_____ 比较的人或事物}_____ (谓语){比较的结果(异同)}例如:这张画跟那张画一样。他学的专业跟你学的专业一样。他的爱好跟我的爱好差不多。我的想法跟你的想法相同。去他那儿跟来我这儿一样。你买跟我买一样。二、用"跟"表示比较的特点(一)介词"跟"和比较对象构成的介词结构主要是在谓语前作状语。例如:她的围巾跟你的围巾一样。这件衣服的颜色跟那件衣服的颜色差不多。这篇文章的观点跟那篇文章的观点相同。(二)"跟"和"一样"常用再一起,构成固定格式"跟。。。一样",可以作定语、补语,也可以在其他形容词或某些动词谓语前作状语。例如:这座桥跟那座桥一样雄伟。(作状语)我跟他一样喜欢文艺。(作状语)他写汉字写得跟你一样好看(作状语)我要买一本跟他那本一样的词典。(作定语)她长得跟她母亲一样。(作补语)(三) 介词"跟"前边和后边的词或词组一般是同类的。例如:面包跟米饭一样好吃。(名词)我们跟你们一样要全心全意为人民服务。(代词)这个湖跟那个湖一样深。(名词性偏正词组)他们俩跟她们俩一样爱唱歌。(同位词组)游泳跟滑冰一样是很有意思的体育活动。(动宾词组)(四)"跟。。。一样"的否定形式是在"一样"前(或"跟"前)用否定副词"不"。例如:我的意见个他的意见不一样。我买的照相机跟你的不一样。她的裙子不跟你的一样。 Web search using e.g. "Chinese grammar: comparison" will yield online help, e.g. http://chineseffect.com/grammar/comparison/

  • Thanks for making this an answer instead of a comment! Could you try and make this more readable? Maybe split up the individual main points and give a little English explanation. – user3306356 Jan 28 '18 at 12:01

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