I remember that my dad used this occasionally when he was arguing with my mom. Google translate just returns smelly rock, but I know it's gotta be some sort of slang, as whenever my dad said it, my mom would get really upset. Point of note: my dad's from southern China, and my mom's from Shanghai, so it might be some sort of region specific slang. I've already tried Wikipedia with Mandarin Profanity and languagerealm.com. Unfortunately, I can't read Chinese, otherwise I'd look on Baidu.
Edit to clarify my question in response to comments: The pinyin is chòu shítou. 臭石头 could be homophomic with another character, though I remember that Mom always would say (in English) that he was calling her a stinky rock; she also said that he would call her things in Chinese that he wouldn't dare say in English, cuz then my brother and I would understand (hence why I think it was some sort of profanity). He would say something along the lines of "你是一个臭石头". Google translate returns smelly rock, and while it's definitely wrong, another thing that's smelly and hard is feces, so he could've been calling her feces/shit, though if that's the case, he could've just stuck with the other profanity he was using (some of which I did find in the Mandarin profanity of Wikipedia). Of note, I could also be a little biased now cuz I'm a lot more used to profanity than I was as a high schooler.
Also, it is possible that it was 臭屎头 (smelly feces head?), but I'm pretty certain that it was 臭石头.