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I'm reading an abridged version of 三国演义。(I don't think I could read the original, too difficult for me.)

(诸葛亮)故意激怒司马懿,派人送了一套女人的衣服,并辱骂他像女人一样,缩头不战。司马懿心里恼怒,但却穿上衣服,文使者:“诸葛亮忙吗?吃饭睡觉情况怎么样?”

Did 司马懿 put on women's clothes to meet 诸葛亮's envoy? Or is this just a bad book?

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Did 司马懿 put on women's clothes to meet 诸葛亮's envoy?

I don't think 司马懿 really put on the clothes.

From the original:

(emphasis mine)

且说孔明自引一军屯于五丈原,累令人搦战,魏兵只不出。孔明乃取巾帼并妇人缟素之服,盛于大盒之内,修书一封,遣人送至魏寨。诸将不敢隐蔽,引来使入见司马懿。懿对众启盒视之,内有巾帼妇人之衣,并书一封。懿拆视其书,略曰:“仲达既为大将,统领中原之众,不思披坚执锐,以决雌雄,乃甘窟守土巢,谨避刀箭,与妇人又何异哉!今遣人送巾帼素衣至,如不出战,可再拜而受之。倘耻心未泯,犹有男子胸襟,早与批回,依期赴敌。”司马懿看毕,心中大怒,乃佯笑曰:“孔明视我为妇人耶!”即受之,令重待来使。

受之 only means 司马懿 received / took in / accepted the clothes.

Here's an English version:

(emphasis mine)

Then he confirmed the order to remain strictly on the defensive till some change of circumstances on the part of the enemy should promise advantage.

After his army had settled into camp on the Wuzhang Hills, Zhuge Liang continued his attempts to provoke a battle. Day after day, parties went to challenge the army of Wei, but they resisted all provocation.

One day Zhuge Liang put a dress made of deer hide in a box, which he sent, with a letter, to his rival. The insult could not be concealed, so the generals led the bearer of the box to their chief. Sima Yi opened the box and saw the deer hide dress. Then he opened the letter, which read something like this:

"Friend Sima Yi, although you are a Commander-in-Chief and lead the armies of the Middle Land, you seem but little disposed to display the firmness and valor that would render a contest decisive. Instead, you have prepared a comfortable lair where you are safe from the keen edge of the sword. Are you not very like a deer? Wherefore I send the bearer with a suitable gift, and you will humbly accept it and the humiliation, unless, indeed, you finally decide to come out and fight like a warrior. If you are not entirely indifferent to shame, if you retain any of the feelings of a tiger, you will send this back to me and come out and give battle."

Sima Yi, although inwardly raging, pretended to take it all as a joke and smiled.

"So he regards me as a deer," said he.

He accepted the gift and treated the messenger well.

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Most likely not.

三国演义 is a novel, therefore the stories in 三国演义 are not nessecarily fact. And as described in @songyuanyao's answer, 三国演义 does not say that 司马懿 put on the cloths.

A relevant Story in 晋书 (History of the Jin Dynasty) reads as following:

亮数挑战,帝不出,因遗帝巾帼妇人之饰。帝怒,表请决战,天子不许,乃遣骨鲠臣卫尉辛毗杖节为军师以制之。

[诸葛亮 challenged 司马懿 to fight for multiple times, but 司马懿 did not respond. Therefore 诸葛亮 send a set of women's clothes to 司马懿 (to irritate him). 司马懿 was angry, and he wrote a letter to the king asking for permission to fight, but the king did not allow. The king appointed 辛毗 as 司马懿's military advisor to control him.]

The book you read may not be a bad book, but a little more fictional. Some TV shows also features the similar story where 司马懿 puts on the women's cloth and even shows off in front of 诸葛亮。

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我理解他穿上那件诸葛亮送的女人衣服,他是想像使者传递一个信息: "我知道你是有意激怒我,从而达到让我出战的目的。 但我不会上你的当,我已经识破了你的计谋。"

Maybe, more context would help to understand it more clearly.

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