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In the section about the grammar structure "V + ... [时段]", my Chinese book has these examples (among others):

我今天休息了一天 and 我今天休息一天了

(1) 我今天休息了一天。
Wǒ jīntiān xiūxíle yītiān.

(2) 我今天休息一天了
Wǒ jīntiān xiūxí yītiānle.

(Not relevant to the question, but for completeness: the extra part above is 动作的完成 (dòngzuò de wánchéng) = completed action, and 时段的变化 (shíduàn de biànhuà) = duration change.)

I word-for-word translate the above sentences to:

I today rest[ed] [for] one day.

What's puzzling me is that the repetition of 天 sounds weird: both sentences use both 今天 (today) and 一天 (one day).

Question: Is it weird to say either 我今天休息了一天 or 我今天休息一天了 because of the repetition of 天?

It seems that 我今天休息 or 我今天休息了 would suffice, and there wouldn't arise a context in which either 我今天休息了一天 or 我今天休息一天了 would be needed.

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No. It is not weird at all.

我今天休息 means: I rest/will rest today. It usually is only saying that: I do/will not work today.

我今天休息了 means: I have taken a rest today. It shows no information about how long I rested, and usually not a whole day. Usually, it is used to say that I have already taken a rest during my work/study/exercise/... today.

Both the given examples are saying that I've rested for a whole day.

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我今天休息 VS 我今天休息了

Despite the grammar , 我今天休息 and 我今天休息了 are roughly same in practical. They can be used at any time in today.

我今天休息了一天 VS 我今天休息了

Because 一天 is a duration, you can not declare it before the duration has been completed.

Thus 我今天休息了一天 can only be used at night, again 我今天休息了 can be used at any time today to describe you have taken a rest which will for a whole day.

我今天休息一天了 VS 我今天休息了一天

The difference is vary for people, I feel the former more emotional, because there is no extra word to split 休息 and 一天.

Here is my thought, I don't have proof: Usually 了 will be added after verb, but in 我今天休息一天了, 了 is added at the end, which makes 一天 sounds more important.

If you emphasize the duration, you want to explain why.

These

我今天休息一天了, 我不想再休息了.

我今天休息一天了, 我很无聊.

sounds more emotional than

我今天休息了一天, 我不想再休息了.

我今天休息了一天, 我很无聊.

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