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不料,一天早晨,我骑自行车,被一个人撞倒,人摔了出去,左手骨折。

"Unexpectedly, One day in the morning, when I rode my bicycle,

I ran into a person and (I or my body) was thrown out of, my left hand was broken."

人 is used instead of "身体".

Why is this expression used?

In Chinese, is "人" often used for the meaning of "my body"?

In my feeling, "人" is used for the meaning of "human or person" , academically,

philosophically, historically, literally, and so on.

It is not for the meaning of the particular someone or the particular body.

It is not concrete but abstractive.

So, I think "人摔了出去" should be changed to "我摔了出去" or "身体摔了出去".

"人" is commonly used for the meaning of "my body"?

I have no confidence if I can distinguish this meaning when I listen to "ren".

In this site, "人" is very questioned but the meaning is "human or person".

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Yes, it is very common to use 人 to emphasize 'one's body' or 'the person (one's personality)'

In your example sentence, 人 refers to 'one's body' as Dan's answer stated:

"我()被摔了出去 = my (body) was thrown out"

人 could also refer to 'the person' or 'one's personality'

Example: 他()不太友善 = He, (the person) is not very friendly = his personality is not too friendly

You can remove 人 and write: "我被摔了出去 (I was thrown out)" and "他不太友善 (he isn't very friendly)" without emphasize 'body' or 'personality'

In 他人不太友善 ( He, the person is not very friendly), 人 is short for '這個人'

In 他人不太友善 (his personality is not too friendly), 人 is short for '為人(性格)'

If the sentence was "他人很聰明 (he, the person is very clever)", 人 has to be short for 這個人 since clever is not a personality or emotion

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According to dictionaries, here means this sense:

(人的身体或意识) state of one's health; how one feels:

When the patient was taken to hospital, he had already lost consciousness.

送到医院,(他)人已经昏迷过去了。

I haven't been feeling well for several days.

这几天我人不大舒服。

In your context, it means the sense of one's body. It could be also referring to one's feelings/consciousness(see the above example).

It is a pretty common usage of 人. Let's say when I say 我人不太舒服, I might mean 我身体不太舒服, feeling vomiting, headache and etc.

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You are right, "ren" does mean "body" here. I can not really say if it is commonly used, but I can give you a few examples on "ren" used as "body"

别把人累坏了

Here "ren" means "body" and the phrase means "do not make yourself too tired".

人在心不在

This phrase means "(the person) is physically present while his or her mind is absent".

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