In the following sentence:


深入 is a verb, and 学习 is also a verb or noun. So it is awkward 学习 modifies a verb here.

One possibility is that 的 is misspelled with 得 here and 深入 is used an an adjective (meaning "thorough" or "deepgoing"), but this text is formal and not something you see on the web (it is a textbook for Chinese learners).

So why is 的 used in such a way? What does it mean here, and is it grammatically correct? Or is it simply a typo with 得 (which sometimes happen among native Chinese speakers, though as I said, it is a textbook for language learners and should be checked before pubilshed)?

  • 1
    深入 is considered as a noun here.
    – user4072
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 7:56
  • @songyuanyao Thanks but why is it considered as a noun then? Pleco lists it as either verb or adjective.
    – Blaszard
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 8:08
  • 随着学习的深入 (according as learning penetrates more deeply/becomes more thorough) : 随(着) + V + V according as V + V (following A's B)
    – user6065
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 8:26
  • @Blaszard Chinese does not have strict Part of speech. As word can be used as many different part of speeches without changing its form. It would be hard for a dictionary to list all possibilities.
    – fefe
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 8:30
  • 1
    Chinese verbs can correspond to English gerunds (a form that is derived from a verb but that functions as a noun) Chinese verbs can be subjects and objects.
    – user6065
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 22:39

3 Answers 3


songyuanyao wrote:

深入 is considered as a noun here

songyuanyao is right, 深入(advance) is a noun here

随着(following) 学习的 (of study) 深入 (advance)

Notice 随着 (following) is the verb, advance is the object, and 学习的 is the adjectival phrase that describe 'advance'-- (advance of what? Advance of the study of course.)

'的' at the end of '学习的' turns the noun '学习' (study) into an adjectival phrase (of study)

Let me give another example of [noun + 的] = [of noun]:

战斗 : to battle (v); battle (n)

战斗的 = of battle

加劇: to intensify(v); intensification (n)

"战斗的加劇" = "intensification of battle"

Both 战斗 and 加劇 are noun here and 的 turns 战斗 to an adjectival phrase for 'intensification' (intensification of the battle)

In '战斗加劇', '战斗'(battle) is the object noun ; and 加劇 (intensify) is a verb

In '学习得深入', '学习' is a verb and '得' is a 'degree adverbial particle' that turns the verb '深入' into an adverbial phrase for it (describe the degree of the verb 学习)

In '深入地学习', '地' turn the verb 深入 into an adverbial phrase for the verb 学习 (describe the manner of the verb 学习)


Now in Chinese standard, 的地得 are merged into 的. In this case, using 得 is better (clearly and grammar right). But using 的 is correct also.

  • Thanks and do you have any evidence to back up your claim "Now in Chinese standard, 的地得 are merged into 的."? I have heard it in the past but think if it is that common, there should be researches on this subject.
    – Blaszard
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 16:14
  • @Blaszard《中学教学语法系统提要(试用)》(人民教育出版社中学语文室1984年):这里不区分“的”“地”,都用“的”。过去曾经不分,并未引起混乱,而通行的分写办法在教学上不无困难,事实上也确有疑难情况,所以根据许多教师的建议,提倡不分。但是目前报刊文章和许多著作中大都是分写的(虽然分得不妥当的屡见不鲜),因此不作硬性规定,愿意分写的尽管分写,只要分得对就行(定语用“的”,状语用“地”)。 Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 17:12

的 is correct here and not an instance of native-speaker-sloppiness.

It's probably easiest to say 深入 and 学习 are both acting as nouns, 'depth' and 'study', and the depth 'belongs to' the study as in the most common canonical use of 的. The English gloss of 'depth' loses the change-of-state meaning conveyed by 入, so I guess it should be 'the increase in depth' which is pretty horrible as a translation, but does convey its noun-ish behavior here. "Following deeper study, the difficulty will decrease..."

If 随着科学的发展 or 随着清朝的衰落 look natural to you, that's the same basic pattern, noun-noun linked with 的 and referring to a change of state. It's pretty common!

  • This is a good point. I think the English gerund/participle can denote the change-of-state sense. 随着科学的发展: as the science is developing. My English is not that good, so that's just my impression.
    – dan
    Commented Jun 23, 2018 at 1:45

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