1

For example, if I turn a street corner and find there is some kind of situation, for example a crashed car or whatever, and I want to ask someone nearby if they saw what happened, what should I say?

Is it 你看到发生了什么事吗?or are there any better ways to express this?

2

Your sentence along with others in answers are all correct. The closest idiomatic one I can think of is 你刚才看到这里出什么事了(did you see what happen here just now). In practice, it can be shortened as: 这里出什么事了? or 出什么事了?.

1

You could say

刚才你看到了吗?

Or similarly

你刚才看到了吗?

1

你看到发生了什么事吗 is correct without doubt. But I myself prefer to say 刚这里怎么了? or 你刚看到这里怎么了没? These two expressions are very colloquial but more natural to me. I think 发生了什么 is more used when we are typing or writing.

1

I would translate it into “你看到刚刚这里发生了什么事吗?”

“刚刚” refer to something happened just a few minutes before, it a past tense.

1

I would say 你有看到刚刚发生什么事吗?.

Did you see what (just) happened?

0

Most answers above are right.

But let me tell you an extremely native expression, esp. in northeast China.

咋的了?

meaning "what happened?"/"What's wrong?"

you can specify the location to eliminate ambiguities.

这(儿)咋的了?

"What happened here?"

Zhe (er) Za de Le?

2 stressed syllables only, simple and easy.

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