There are a few fixed expressions to differentiate between and describe characters, as mentioned in this answer, and these are also used as names for the characters when talking about them:
- 白勺的 for 的
- 土也地 for 地
- 双人得 for 得
There are more of these, but the number is fairly small as only some of the more common characters have such a name (or description). There probably aren't more than a few handful (but correct me if I'm wrong): the ABC dictionary actually only lists the ones already mentioned above.
I'm asking for a comprehensive list of these character descriptions.
I know that StackExchange is not a good place for list questions, as argued here. However, if the list is not open-ended, but has a limited number of entries, then it should be a good fit to the site. This has also been suggested for the German language Stack (in German). The list could be a community wiki answer.