From the links on your post:
(But the white marble that's for making statue is also called marble)
'white marble' is one kind of 'marble'
'Han white jade' is pure white marble
汉白玉 is not actual jade, but a marble that is pure white
Is that translation correct? Is it a form of 大理石?
is there an English translation of this form of white marble?
Search 'white marble' image and you can find many pictures that we would call 白色的大理石, but most of them are not pure white.
汉白玉 should be translated as 'pure white marble' and it is still a kind of 大理石 (marble)
There is one pure white marble image I found online. It came from Hanoi
Hanoi is in North Vietnam, neighboring China
云石(cloud stone = marble) is another name for 大理石