廿, 卅, 卌 are never used in Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese except some idiomatic expressions.
They might be used in Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, but never in Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, except some idiomatic expressions.
五卅惨案 May 30th Massacre
This is the only term that I can think of using 卅 in Modern Standard Mandarin.
Sometimes you can see 廿一, 廿二, 廿三, ... 廿九 in Chinese calendar, but many people may pronounce them as 二十一, 二十二, 二十三, ... 二十九, because many native Chinese speakers do not even know the Mandarin pronunciation of 廿.
20 to 29 are 二十 to 二十九
30 to 39 are 三十 to 三十九
40 to 49 are 四十 to 四十九
These are how we use in Mandarin.
However, they are pretty common in some non-Mandarin Chinese, such as Cantonese and Hokkien. For example, Hokkien uses 廿一 for 21 and 卌一 for 41.