I know they all mean to give up, or abandon but what would be the different meanings and context these words are used in?



Let me give you some examples of mixed English and Chinese sentences:

1, Lisa's boyfriend Tom married someone else. Lisa cried and said that Tom had abandoned(抛弃) her.

2, The task is too difficult for me to accomplish. So I gave up(放弃) the task.

3, I can't accomplish so many things in limited time, so I have to give up(舍弃) some things.

4, The bag was full, so I had to discard(丢弃) the fruit I had just picked.(probably I will throw the fruit in the trash can)

These four words can be nouns or verbs.

It is difficult to distinguish between "舍弃" and "放弃":

If 放弃 is "abandonment(or abandon)", 舍弃 is "selective abandonment(or selectively abandon)". And sometimes 抛弃 can be replaced with 舍弃, but this usage is unusual.


I think 抛弃 and 丢弃 sometimes can substitute each other, and they are used for something that you dont want anymore.

抛弃 might have the sense that you abandon something but you might not be supposed to do so. For example, a husband 抛弃 his wife because his wife has some diseases.

For 舍弃, it is used for something that you don't want to abandon but you have to.

For example, when you pack up your stuff to move to a new place, but your luggage is too heavy. So in order to lighten the burden, you may have to 舍弃 something that is not so important to you.

For 放弃, I think it is more used for giving up an abstract concept, such as your dream, your plan, your goal, etc, but not a physical object.


"汉语同义词词典"has entries for pairs 抛弃/扬弃, 抛弃/遗弃,抛弃/扬弃[同]动词。表示丢弃不要。[异][抛弃]看重于因厌恶或感到无用而丢弃不要。对象可以是人和具体事物,也可以是"理论、观点、思想、经验、方法"等抽象事物。例:(1)我们每个人都要自觉维护环境卫生,不要随便抛弃垃圾。(2)有人第一次见到椰子的时候,完全不知道那东西究竟是什么一个吃法,闹了半天,那椰壳上凿一个洞,将将就就喝了椰子就算,却把椰肉连同椰壳都抛弃了(秦牧<闹市观花记>)(3)他抛弃了以前的个人主义,站稳了人民的立场。(臧克家(1905-2004)(闻一多先生传略>)(4)他还谈到苹果园,谈到用昂贵的学费换来的经验一旦抛弃,多么令人心疼。(谌容<白雪>) [扬弃]着重于为了发扬好的,有用的东西而丢弃不好的或感到无用的东西。对象多为旧文化、旧思想方面的抽象事物。不能用于人和具体事物。例:(1)"五四'以来的散文创作扬弃了宋代周敦颐"文以载道"的僵死形式,继续了先秦以来散文学的优良传统,开拓了白话散文创作的新局面。(丁尔纲<茅盾散文欣赏>)(2)。。。

抛弃/遗弃 [同]表示舍弃,扔掉不要[异][抛弃]看重于主观上舍弃,可用于人或事物,用于人时有嫌弃使离开的感情色彩,多含贬义;用于事物时对象可以是具体的物,也可以是抽象的事物,可以是消极的、不好的,也可以不是。例:(1)他们的身价高了,就抛弃省港罢工工人,解散革命的工会和农会,屠杀共产党和所有革命的人。(欧阳山(<三家巷>)(2)她给婚后不久就被丈夫抛弃了,从此她就过着以泪洗面的生活>(肖复兴<两个失恋人的一个夜晚>)(3)新升号的其它炸毁的船只还抛弃在沿岸,我们都可以看见。(郭沫若<洪波曲>)(4)无数革命先烈为了人民的利益牺牲了他们的生命,使我们每一个活着的人想起他们就心里难过,难道我们还有什么个人利益不能牺牲,还有什么错误不能抛弃吗?(毛泽东<论联合政府>)(5)你应该从政治上看眼,立即抛弃旧读书人的浩癖,决不能因小失大。(曹靖华<往事漫议>)

放弃 greatest usage frequency by far #1724 give up; abandon; renounce; back-out; forsake; resign; surrender; abstain from;放弃个人意见 withdraw 放弃休息时间 give up 放弃表决权 abstain from voting 放弃财产 relinquish 放弃原则 forsake 放弃职守 desert

舍弃 bkrs:丢开;抛弃;放弃:不舍弃顾。give up; abandon: 那个狠心的男人舍弃了妻小。truncate 抛弃;割舍。抛掉。#16567

丢弃 bkrs:扔掉;抛弃:虽是旧衣服,他也舍不得丢弃。(1) [abandon]∶放弃实施、 实行或运用 他们丢弃了本国语言而采用了法语 (2) [discard]∶由于失去用处、 价值或兴趣而扔掉 把厚大衣丢弃了 (3) [give up]∶交给他人 几年后他妻子的去世使他丢弃了他的家 丢掉、拋弃。 如:「在公共埸所不可随意丢弃纸屑。」#18404

besides above already mentioned also note (with similar meanings) 摒弃(屏弃)、废弃、嫌弃、唾弃、背弃、摈弃、厌弃、毁弃、扔弃、离弃、捐弃、割弃,

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