I'd like to know whether there is a way to distinguish vegetarian from vegan in Chinese or is the only word available 素食者？
vegetarianism 素食主义 means no animals for meals.
veganism 纯素主义 means no animals for meals or clothes.
However, these words are not popular in China. I don't think Chinese people even understand those jargons.
You'd better say 我不吃肉 (I don't eat meat) if you are a vegetarian, and you'd better say 我不吃肉，连衣服也不用动物制品 (I don't eat meat, not even animals for clothes) if you are a vegan.
Wikipedia distinguishes them like this:
维根 here is a transliterated loanword from English.
Wikipedia also offers the translation:
Although these words, may, work in their written forms - you might generally not be understood using these words colloquially, because nobody really talks like this. Better alternatives would be:
- 不吃肉 = vegetarianism
- 不吃动物(产)品 = veganism
A informal way to say it:
vegetarian: 蛋奶素 vegan: 純素
see online dictionaries, e.g. linguee: vegan food 纯素食 veganism, a diet consisting solely of plant products 纯素食主义 a vegan 纯素食者 iciba:vegan n. 严格的素食主义者； n. A strict vegetarian; confirm: bkrs:纯素食vegan vegan food