How can we use 做 in this meaning in other sentences? Where can I read more about it and what is the name of this "rule"?
And what is the meaning of the 了 in this sentence?
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做 + identity = be identity
Example:做好人，做首領 (good person and leader are identities)
做 + procedure/action = do procedure
Example: 做大事， 做錯，做工 (great thing, mistake and work involve procedures or action)
the final particle 了 is a modal word for emphasis, if you remove it, the meaning of the sentence would not change, but the tone would be flat
"要(做)大人物就要(做)大事" = "to (be) a great man, you need to (do) great thing"
Why do we use 做 in this sentence as “being”?
朋友 is an identity
Well, whereas in English you 'be a friend,' in Chinese you '做朋友。‘ Not much of a rule. Why does that surprise you? Do you think Chinese must copy English?
Have a look here. Number 8
You could write:
Edit: I was reading an interview with a TV presenter today. He was asked if he acts role of an intellectual in his TV show. He said:
I think there may be a similar form in English.
A: You should try to be more friendly.
B: I don't do friendly!
What is the meaning of 了? That is a whole Pandora's Box of questions!
The simplest answer is, it makes the sentence sound complete. Otherwise it sounds strange, according to a Chinese friend.
I much like with him being friends
First, it uses the 太...了 grammar construct: see Expressing "excessively" with "tai". Most learners encounter this almost immediately with 太贵了. Here, it's used for emphasis, such as in 你太好了 or
I much like to eat dumplings
To simplify breaking it down further, I'll delete the 太 and 了, which only reduces the emphasis. I.e.:
I like with him being friends
2. What if we delete the 做?
We get a sentence which is incomplete:
I like with his friend [..?]
Here, 他朋友 is interpreted as "his friend", i.e., 他的朋友; see Expressing close possession without "de".
3. Why 做 and not something else?
做 is one of these Chinese words that have a lot of meanings. In the original sentence, it could mean any of these (or some combination, or something in between):
to do; to make; to act as; to be; to become; to function (in some capacity); to serve as; to form (a bond or relationship)
Precisely what it means depends on context, which is presumably known to the people speaking.
In principle, in sentences like these, it's possible to replace 做 with 当:
But in this example, it seems the formal and distanced 当 is mismatched with the informal and positive 太喜欢...了. This is probably not true all the time, but it's my impression. Compare it with examples such as the following:
I said I was friends with him, [but] he still says a few exceeding-friendship words
How can I let a man know, I only want to be friends...
(For why it's not 是, see When do I have to use 做/当 instead of 是?)
4. Other examples
How can we use 做 in this meaning in other sentences?
Here's some examples I found searching the web:
Quote：- “In principle, in sentences like these, it's possible to replace 做 with 当"
Interesting, because if you combine the two to 当做, it becomes "to treat, to regard, to perceive, to look upon" someone as a friend and not making someone a friend as 做 by itself would.
You can also replace 做 with 交, (jiao) which is, I think, less colloquial.