MDBG has the following entry:
green (golf) (loanword)
果岭 doesn't really sound anything remotely like green, 岭 especially doesn't match up with the end of green.
How did green become 果岭?
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Like you said in the comment, something like 格林 indeed would have been a better phonetic approximation. But the translation (even by sound) should also consider its meaning if possible. 岭 means hill or mountain in Chinese. And since a golf course resembles a hill for having ups and downs, 岭 would be more approriate to describe such an area. However I think 果 is purely phonetic.