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Is there an idiom that means to make big claims but have little evidence to support them?

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空口无凭,言而无据,无根之论

But you can coin four-character words to express it more accurately. It looks like that you mean academic claims.

Let me have a try:

论訇证寡(The claim is thunderous(figurative), but the evidence is little.)

例句:

像他这样的学术投机分子,才敢在会上作论訇证寡的报告。

Note: Only in writing you can coin such words. Otherwise people won't understand you.

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Not sure If 言过其实 can fit. it means a statement surpassing the fact.

or 夸大其词? it means represent beyond the bounds of truth; make an overstatement;

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This thread would never be complete without the "urban-dictionary" style (i.e, slang), modern example for such idiom, the good old 吹牛, or its R-rated version 吹牛逼.

It generally means to brag about something, which could be true but usually isn't.

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In addition to some good answers:

信口开河

夸夸其谈

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