I'd like to know some idioms that are used at work by workmates or bosses.
I think the 36 strategies of ancient China contains plenty of "slangs" that you can refer to at a work context, and fell under the requirement that you're seeking for. There is translated books about it that you can purchase online easily. Even though you don't want to read a whole book, you can easily search some general or detailed descriptions online.
Among those 36 strategies, I would say 抛砖引玉 is the most commonly used at a work context, and the meaning has been evolved when you use at work, and it is understood as "put forward a few pointers for discussion and comment". It also shows your attitude to the audience that you're being humble, and open and ready to listen to opinions.
And I'm sure there are a lot other slangs that are commonly used at work context, and I hope this answer can attract real "jade" from my "brick".:)
The most common slang words/phrases I know is sha2 instead of shen2me for 什么. Aside from that, there maybe also is wo3bu4er1dao instead of wo3bu4zhi1dao for 我不知道 (Please not this is only used for the negation!).
Those are not work or boss specific, but they are pretty common. Nevertheless I do not recommend using them, as it is commonly seen as 'uneducated'.