I have a book with the following lesson titles:

  • 中文以及中国
  • 聚会和饮食
  • 交通与环境

Why are these terms connected with 以及 / 和 / 与, why not always use 和 for example?

Are there any rules for proper use of these conjunctions? What are the differences?

  • Found an article about it in Chinese, motranslator.mysinablog.com/…. In many cases, they are somewhat interchangeable. is much more common in informal oral Chinese, while or 以及 are used mostly in written language. These are just personal perception.
    – Flake
    Dec 18, 2011 at 18:23
  • 1
    @Flake: I wish I could read a text at that level :( Dec 18, 2011 at 18:58
  • Who can tell me what‘s the difference between以及,并,而,和,与,thanks.
    – user6835
    Nov 21, 2014 at 4:57
  • This does not provide an answer to the question. To critique or request clarification from an author, leave a comment below their post - you can always comment on your own posts, and once you have sufficient reputation you will be able to comment on any post.
    – NS.X.
    Nov 21, 2014 at 21:42

1 Answer 1


There are a few differences between those three words:

  1. "以及" can only connect phrases,not words.
  2. The phrases after "以及" is commonly considered to secondary.
  3. "与" and "和" are used to express the relationship.
  4. "与" is more elegant than "和". such as "老人与海".
  5. "和" is mostly used in oral form.
  6. In some cases,"和" and "与" are somewhat interchangeable, such as "我和他做事方法不同" or "我与他做事方法不同".
  • 2
    I think your point #1 is wrong. "需要采购:木瓜、洋葱、猪肉……,以及鱼”。 In this example, "以及“ can be replaced by "还有” which more close to oral form. Mar 2, 2014 at 10:18

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