I want to translate "Using the knife on these types of surfaces will dull the knife." This I find to be difficult grammatically as well. However, I'm not sure how to say "dull" in Mandarin, and google doesn't provide much help.
Dull (adjective) as in 'a dull knife' is
钝 in Mandarin. There is not a two-character version for it.
Dull (vt.) as in 'dull the knife' is
使..变钝, literally 'make .. become dull'.
Example of 钝 (adjective):
It's impossible to cut a pineapple with such a dull knife.
To translate your sentence, which is also an example of 使..变钝:
Using the knife on these types of surfaces will dull the knife.
- (Knife or blade) sharp (adjective): 快 or 锋利.
快 must be used in the same sentence as the noun (刀), otherwise it doesn't mean 'sharp'. 锋利 can be used standalone.
- Sharpen the knife (V+O): 磨刀.
An example using all these words:
Knife becomes dull after some use. Burnish it and it will be sharp again.