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The meaning of both 陪 and 跟 is "go with", so are there any differences between them?

我陪你去医院。
我跟你去医院。
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TL;DR: The given sentences are almost identical because ...跟你去... (go with you) and ...陪你去... (accompany you) are similar in meaning. However, 跟 has many uses beyond this, which 陪 does not.

In general, there are distinctions between (which means "to accompany", sometimes with the implication of offering assistance) and which means a bunch of things (in the given sentence it means "with"). As for the example sentences:

你去医院。
I accompany you to the hospital.

你去医院。
I go with you to the hospital.

These two sentences are indeed very similar, and could mean the same thing. The reason is ...跟你去... (go with you) and ...陪你去... (accompany you) are similar in meaning.

If 我 is not sick, and is assisting 你, then the first sentence would be more appropriate. If both 我 and 你 are sick, then the second sentence would be more appropriate.

More generally, we're using the grammar structure:

Subj. + 跟 + Person + Verb + Obj.
Expressing "with" with "gen"

If we use this grammar structure with a verb other than 去, we can't just replace 跟 with 陪:

你说汉语。
I speak Chinese with you.

你结婚。
I am married with you.

In fact, I don't think the above sentences would even make sense if we replaced 跟 with 陪.

And in arbitrary sentences, we can't use 跟 and replace it with 陪:

你不一样。
I and you are unalike.

孩子跟着妈妈。
The child follows their mother.

她穿着高鞋。
She wears high heels.

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It have the same meaning. Both of them means follows.

According dictionary owned by Ministry of education in Taiwan.

Let us see 跟.

One of the meaning of is:

和、與。

One of the meaning of is:

與、跟。

One of the meaning of is:

跟從、跟隨。

And let us see 陪.

One of the meaning of is:

伴隨。

The meaning of 伴隨 is:

跟隨、隨同。

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Assuming a boyfriend is saying 我陪你去医院 to her girlfriend, the girl will feel being loved and warm in heart. However, if the boy says 我跟你去医院, the girl will not feel anything, but simply know a fact that the boy will go with her together.

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陪 inspires more of a feeling of concern verses 跟 is a casual going with

I am accompanying you to the hospital verses I am going with you to the hospital

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