My textbook introduces 开 and 给 as Result Complements which are placed after verbs to indicate the result of actions. However, the book doesn’t provide any examples.

Can you guys teach me how to use the Result Complements, and provide some examples too?


  • 1
    把 + sth + 给 + sb: return / send / give sth to sb. verb + 开 + sb/sth: do the verb to make sb/sth be opened by the subject, do the verb to make sb/sth to get out of the subject, do the verb to make sb/sth away from of the subject.
    – xenophōn
    Commented Apr 26, 2020 at 3:06

3 Answers 3


Result complement follow a single character verb to provide 'result' of the verb

Example of 开 as result complement:

跑 = run

跑(开) = run (and get away)


放 = release

放(开) = release (let out)


拆 = break

拆(开) = break (open)

Example of 给 as result complement:

供 = provide

供(给) = provide (and give)


補 = replenish

補(给) = replenish (and give)

  • In 卖给我, would 给 not be considered a result complement?
    – Buddy L
    Commented Mar 30, 2022 at 2:50
  • @Buddy L 给 in 卖给我 (sell to me) means 'to'. It is not a result complement but a preposition
    – Tang Ho
    Commented Mar 30, 2022 at 2:53
  • Is there a practical reason why it could not be described as a result complement here?
    – Buddy L
    Commented Mar 30, 2022 at 2:54
  • 给 is the result of 供 or 補 but 给 in 卖给+n (sell to +n) is not a result.It is a preposition that indicates to whom the action is directed to
    – Tang Ho
    Commented Mar 30, 2022 at 2:59
  • Sorry, this doesn't answer my question. Is there a practical reason? If I define 给 as a result complement here, is my definition going to run into problems elsewhere in the language? For example 见 is a result complement of 看, but 看见 can still take a noun as an object: 他看见我了. So as far as I can tell the ability to take a noun as an object doesn't mean that there is no result complement present.
    – Buddy L
    Commented Mar 30, 2022 at 3:00

To add on to the previous answer, even though both are classified as Result Complements, they differ in practical usage.

For example, ~开 often has an imperative tone to it, and does not include an object in the sentence.

走开!Go away!

放开! Let go!

Indeed, there are other examples like 拆开 which aren’t imperative, but this 搭配 is very commonly used to order someone to do something.

On the other hand, ~给 is almost always followed by the object of the sentence.

For example:

交给他 (give it to him)

还给他 (return it to him)

If you didn’t put 他, the object, the phrases would respectively become “give it to” and “return it to”, which make no sense.


For 开, I'd guess the most common is 离开 ("to leave") and 打开 ("open" or "start"):

离开北京 (leave Beijing)
离开女朋友 (leave girlfriend)

打开电脑 (start the computer)
打开窗户 (open the window) or 把窗户打开
打开书包 (open the backpack)

but there's many others, such as:

张开手 (open your hand) or 把手张开
展开眼睛 (open your eyes)
放开我 (release me [e.g. from your grip])
松开腰带 (loosen your belt)
撕开衣服 (tear open clothes) or 把衣服撕开
拉开窗帘 (open the curtains) or 把窗帘拉开

It's possible to insert a 不 in the examples above (except for the 把...V开 examples) to indicate it's impossible. E.g. 离不开女朋友 (cannot leave girlfriend).

An example in the "real world":

67 days without returning home, female nurse opens [her] apartment door and is instantly stupefied.

Also 给 arises in several ways:

借给钱 (lend money)
付给司机100元 (pay the driver 100 yuan)

把图片发给我 (send me the pictures)
把钱退给我 (refund my money)
把我的东西还给我 (return my things)
把故事写给我 (write me a story)

电影朋友 (transmit a movie to friends)
她 (post a letter to her)
短信他 (give him a text message)

There's also this structure where 给 comes first (which may not count as a "result complement", but it is closely related):

朋友短信 (give your friend a text message)
礼物 (give you a present)

You'll see 传染给别人 ("spread to others" or "infect others") a lot in today's news:

Is deliberately infecting others with disease illegal?


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