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I have learnt a few conjunctions and am trying to categorise them systematically so that they stay in my head!

I believe I have a number of consecutive conjunctions, which introduce the result of an action (in English, this is words like 'therefore', 'as a result', 'as a consequence'). The first clause introduces the action/reason, and the second clause (after the conjunction) tells you the outcome.

The words I have in this category are:

  • 所以
  • 而 (in the sense of 因...而...)
  • 致使
  • 因此
  • 从而
  • 结果
  • 既然...就...

and, per my logic, these are all really interchangeable.

So, you could say:

(因为)他很累,所以晚上9点就上床了。

因为他很累晚上9点就上床了。

他很累,致使晚上9点就上床了。

他很累,因此晚上9点就上床了。

他很累,从而晚上9点就上床了。

他很累,结果晚上9点就上床了。

既然他很累,晚上9点就上床了。

Are these all fine? I believe that they can all be used this way, but guess some are used in different circumstances? Or are they all interchangeable?


Meanwhile, I have a number of causative conjunctions. These put the order the other way around, so the first sentence tells you the action/result, and the second clause (after the conjunction) tells you the reason for it. In this category, I have:

  • 因为
  • 因而
  • 由于

and, per my logic, these are all interchangeable also.

So:

  • 他晚上9点就上床了, (是)因为他很累。
  • 他晚上9点就上床了, 因而他很累。
  • 他晚上9点就上床了, (是)由于他很累。

Are all of these fine? Are there differences between these? Have I got the right conjunctions in the right category, or does 因而 actually introduce the result per the consecutive conjunctions above?

All input welcome! (Except the kind of input that is offensive, unless it is so ridiculous that it is funny, in which case that is fine)

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他很累,从而晚上9点就上床了。

从而 means "since then/after that" - '他很累' is not a specific event, therefore the sentence is not grammatical

既然他很累,就晚上9点就上床了。

wrong final particle, it should be "既然他很累,就晚上9点就上床吧!"

他晚上9点就上床了, 因而他很累。

He went to bed at just(就) nine O'clock, therefore (因而) he is very tired

Why would he went to bed as early as 9:00PM caused him to be tired?

Also, you don't need to use the pronoun 他 twice in the same sentence.

A better example:

"他每晚9点就上床, 因而从未看过十点播放的新闻。" -- "He goes to bed at 9 o'clock every night, so he has never seen the news broadcast at 10 o'clock."

因而 is an independent conjunction . As long as there's a clause stating a reason, you can use 因而 to connect it to the clause stating the result, For example: "他家中没有电视, 因而从未看过十点播放的新闻"

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  • Ah okay great. So 因而 and 因此 are both used like 所以 (他很累,因而晚上9点就上床了)? – Hashamyim May 9 at 22:18
  • yes it is corret – Tang Ho May 9 at 22:19
  • Cool - thank you. With 从而, does it always have to be a point in time? For example, I found the following sentence, which suggests that it is also like 所以/因而/因此: 他高考取得了省第一名的好成绩,从而被清华大学录取。 – Hashamyim May 9 at 22:22
  • "他高考取得了省第一名的好成绩" is a specific event , and ,"被清华大学录取。" is a result. Therefore, 所以/因而/因此 and 从而 are all suitable conjunction. Actually 从而 means "since then/ after that" – Tang Ho May 9 at 22:28
  • Example: 他被騙去全副家財,[从而]不再信人 = He was deceived to lose all his wealth [since then/after that] he no longer believe in people " – Tang Ho May 9 at 22:34

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