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I found this example sentence in Pleco's dictionary entry for 厲害 :

他的聲音真的很厲害。His voice is amazing.

Why isn't 真的 included in the translation to make it "His voice really/truly is amazing"?

More broadly, is it okay to double-up intensifiers (such as 真的 + 很)? If it is allowed, what effect does it have on a sentence's meaning?

E.g. 他的聲音【真的很】厲害 vs. 他的聲音【很】厲害

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Is 真的 really an intensifier?

我真的不知道(O)... 我真的很不知道 (X)

真的 (really) is an adverb for adjective that doesn't describe 'degree' but 'trueness'.

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我很强 (O)... 我强 (X)

"很强" can be translated as "strong" or "very strong" in English

"很厲害" can be translated as "awesome" or "very awesome" in English

"他的聲音真的很厲害" should be translated as "His voice is really awesome"

If you translate it as "His voice is really very amazing" that would sound odd in English.

If the sentence was "他的聲音很厲害" then you can translate it as "His voice is very amazing" or "His voice is amazing"

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Is it okay to use multiple degree-intensifiers in a sentence?

One intensifier at a time

他非常强壮 (O)

他極之强壮 (O)

他非常極之强壮 (x)

他非常强壮,極之聪明 (O)

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他的声音真的很厉害 should be translated as "his voice is really amazing". Sometimes 真的 can be added in front of an adj. Like in this example, "really" is an adv for "amazing".

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Why isn't 真的 included in the translation to make it "His voice really/truly is amazing"?

Because sometimes people don't translate a sentence word by word. Will you said that "His voice is truly so amazing" in your daily life? Maybe not because it is redundant.

such as 真的 + 很

Yes, you can.

what effect does it have on a sentence's meaning?

It is used to emphasize the sentence. In your example, you emphasize that large extent of amazingness of his voice is true, when you use 真的. It is used to emphasize so even if you don't use 真的, large extent of amazingness of his voice is also true in the sentence.

真的 means "truly".

很 means "so".

真的 is used to modify 很.

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