what is the meaning of 老掉牙的設定?
I want to say it means something like "overused archetype", but I'm not sure if that is correct. (This is in the context of describing common kinds of characters). Thank you.
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设定 here probably refers to the setting of a story for a fiction/movie/game.
老掉牙 is not simply old (while old some time is a good thing). 老掉牙 means outdated, which is a sarcasm. For example:
老掉牙的调幅收音机 outdated AF radio player
老掉牙的设定 is used to describe some art works that are so old fashioned that do not have any fresh feelings. For examples
都2018年了还在用EVA(1995)的设定真是老掉牙了。 It is so outdated that this 2018 anime is still using the setting of EVA(1995) .
In your case, yes it can be used to describe "overused archetype".
There is a more precise translation called 烂大街. While 老掉牙 focuses on the time aspect, 烂大街 focuses on the number of usage. It means so common that it can be found almost everywhere. For example：
超级英雄抵抗纳粹的设定已经烂大街了。 Superhero vs Nazis is already an overused setting.
Note that both 老掉牙 and 烂大街 are not very polite. They are some kind of criticism.
You might also want to use “过于刻板的设定”in formal writings, which means stereotype settings. Or simply "被滥用的设定"。
Also, you might specify it to “人物设定” or “世界观设定”.