I want to ask, "What clothes did you buy at the store?" Which sentence is correct, or which sounds more correct.
Where should the 了 go?
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了 following a 'verb' is a 'verb particle' that indicates the 'verb' as 'completed'
In "你去了商店买什么衣服？" (You went to the store to buy what kind of clothes) '了' following the verb '去'(go), therefore, indicated '去' as a completed action (went/ have gone to)
In "你去商店买什么衣服了？" 了 is mostly treated as a final particle, therefore may not clearly indicate what action is completed
"What clothes did you buy at the store?"
If you want to mark the verb '买' (buy) as a completed action, you need to put the verb particle 了 after it.
"你去商店[买了]什么衣服？" = You went to the store and [bought] what?
You can even add a final particle 了 at the end to emphasize the sentence -- "你去商店[买了]什么衣服了？"