我一毕业就去上海“当”律师 This sentence is given to me in the book. However, I wonder if I can write it like this instead of using another word:
I think the meaning is the same, but which is grammatically correct?
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当 is grammarly correct, it means "to be"
当...（职业）is the correct expression. for example:
当老师，当医生，当科学家, and it cannot be replaced by 做.
做, means "do", is to ask someone's occupation. for example:
你是做什么的？what you do for a living? it cannot be replaced by 当.
so 我一毕业就去上海”做“律师？ is a strange way to say but we also understand.
BTW, I think most of the problems asked in this Chinese Language section is simply because you guys don't have the context or not familiar with the convention.
当 is a verb that means 'to be/ working as/ take on the role or position of' when it is followed by an identity
做 means 'do' or 'perform' when it is followed by a task. e.g. 做法事，做宣传，做工木，做手术. But when it is followed by an identity, it is almost interchangeable with 当 (当 being more formal)
Mandarin usually use 当 for 'working as/ take on the role or position of', but some regions prefer 做. (Cantonese use 做 instead )
Related question: What's the difference between 我是老师 or 我当老师?