I want to say:
I did not hear what you said.
I did not hear clearly what you said.
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听不见 and 听不清 mean different things.
听不见 = can't hear/ didn't hear (didn't know you spoke)
听不清 = can't clearly hear (unsure what you are saying)
Use '听不见你说的話' [didn't hear the words you said] or '听不见你说了什么 [didn't hear what you have said] instead of '听不见你说了的' [didn't hear that you have said] (object missing)
'听不见你(剛)说了的(話)' is also acceptable, but kind of wordy.
"I did not hear clearly what you said." sounds a bit "stiff", English people often use 'catch' for this.
When someone says something to you, but you didn't hear clearly, so you don't understand, you could write:
Sorry, I didn't quite catch what you said.
Someone says something to you, but you are not really paying attention:
Sorry, I didn't hear what you said.
And, when you can't understand anything a person is saying to you (like me quite often):
It's all Greek to me!
I did not hear what you said. => 我没听见你说的话 I did not hear clearly what you said. => 我没听清你说的话
我听不见你说了的 => I can not hear what you said 我听不清你说了的 => I can not hear clearly what you said
我听不见 means you may have an issue in your ear to hear or it is a noisy environment to make you can not hear, it is an objective reason. On the contrary, 我没听见 is a subjective reason.