I am somewhat new to Chinese and was learning “跟”. One of the sentences is "he likes to be with her" and 我的老师 says the correct form is
Would anyone be capable of breaking down the structure of this sentence?
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跟 in this case is a coverb (a pseudo-preposition) which, as I understand it, is a relatively new development in the Chinese language which was brought about by the influence of European languages. Coverbs are all words that originally only functioned as verbs but now also function as prepositions to varying degrees. Some coverbs can be either a verb or a preposition in different contexts while others can only function as prepositions. 跟 here functions as the preposition "with".
A coverb + a noun = an adverbial phrase. Therefore, 跟他 forms the adverbial phrase "with him/her".
在一起 is a verb roughly meaning "to be together".
Therefore, 跟他在一起 is an adverb + a verb, a verb phrase.
他(He/she)喜欢(like)跟她在一起(being together with him/her).
Because 跟 is part of the adverbial phrase that is part of the verb phrase 跟她在一起, it cannot come before 喜欢 which is a separate verb phrase entirely
I like [something].
I like [eating apples].
I like [to watch TV].
跟 ... 在一起：with: typical for Chinese, a double-barreled preposition, one before, one after, like: 在 某事 上， 在 某事 里
I like with her together. （literally)
I like being with her. (more correct English)
和：with 在一起：together 和 ... 一起：with
She [with he together] time feel very safe. (literally)
When she was [with him] she felt safe.