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车外的阳光格外的刺眼.

That's a complete sentence. I've got troubles understanding what parts of speech are. According to my dictionaries:

阳光 - sunshine,

格外 - especially,

刺眼 - to dazzle.

So the sentence would mean "The sunshine outside the bus was extraordinarily dazzling".

But... There's the second 的 in this sentence (阳光格外的刺眼). And objects which go after 的 are nouns (from what I know). So 刺眼 turns to be a noun? If so, where's the verb in this sentence? I really don't understand this 的. I'd gladly put 地 instead.

Edit:

This is 100% clear: 车外的阳光. The unclear 的 is here: 阳光格外的刺眼.

  • 4
    格外的 should technically be 格外地, does that clear things up? – Mo. Sep 23 at 19:25
  • But how come "格外的刺眼" returns 507k results in Google, but "格外地刺眼" returns 53k results? As if it were more common to write it with 的 - WHY? This is just shocking to me. And I can't see any reason to treat 的 as correct here, so that's why I'm asking. – musialmi Sep 23 at 19:36
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    @musialmi There was a time people don't distinct 的地得. Usually, 的 is quite universal. But now, it seems that people do distrinct 的地得 in school. – dan Sep 23 at 22:00
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    With Pinyin IME, it is not easy to get the correct 的. One would often have to manually pick the correct one, which people usually don't do unless in serious writing. – fefe Sep 24 at 0:35
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    In formal writing 地 should be the correct choice of word. But the de facto habit is to use 的 in place of 地! I think this is due to dominance of PINYIN as input method on digital device. People just stop caring about the difference in daily life. Think of it a simplification that happens over time. – hackape Sep 25 at 13:00
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  1. 车外: Object + related location/position = place term, n.
  2. 的: Aux. term to turn n. into descriptive, usually in possession/belonging relation; or habitually added after multi-character adj. (single character adj. usually is optional with 的)
  3. 阳光: n. subject of the sentence
  4. 格外: itself is adv. no need to add any aux term. 月亮格外明亮/汉语格外难学
  5. 的: Double mistake - no need at all, or even if you want to put aux term, it must be 地
  6. 刺: v. as predicate.,literally means "to sting"
  7. 眼: n. as object.

Perfect: 车外的阳光格外刺眼。

Not so good: 车外的阳光格外刺眼。

| improve this answer | |
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  • 车外 (outside of the car)

  • 的 (adjective marker)

  • "车外" (of the outside of the car) is an adjectival phrase that applies to the noun '阳光' ( sunshine)

  • 刺眼(的) is the adjective for '阳光' with 的 omitted

阳光 (sunshine)

格外 (especially) - 格外 is an adverb, the 的 in 格外的 is for emphasis and can be omitted

: 助词, 同 “地”(de)。用在状语后,表示状语和中心词之间的修饰关系)

刺眼 (dazzling)

车外(的)阳光格外(的)刺眼 = The sunshine (of) outside of the car is especially dazzling

You can omit the first '的' in Chinese just like you can omit 'of' in English; You can omit the second '的' because 格外 is already an adverb

| improve this answer | |
  • Thank you for your answer. I'm terribly sorry, but I was imprecise. There are two de in this sentence and my problem is with the second one. I'm going to edit my post right now. – musialmi Sep 23 at 19:19
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I saw this question from maths stackexchange. Although I'm not an expert and just come by, I want to say something: This 的 can be there but it's NOT necessary(from the perspective of a native Chinese speaker, and I'm not sure if in your Chinese test this would be acceptable). The flexibility of Chinese might not be very comfortable for English speakers(which I assume you are), but you will need to get used to it as you proceed.

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    Still quite interested in why I saw this post in my math stachexchange. Good luck tho – Yixuan Li Sep 24 at 20:01
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的 + noun; 得 + adjective; 地 + verb

the second 的 in this sentence should be 得. Sometimes we know it should be 得 but cannot be bothered to correct it in the informal comms as they have same pronouciation and we understand its meaning or the context behind it.

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  • 车外的+阳光=adjective+noun=NOUN (or antecedent); 格外(得)+ 耀眼 =adverbial + adjective =ADJECTIVE (or the Attributive Clause); so you can add 'is' as verb to connect these two phrases; or you can consider adding 'that is' in between making it an attributive clause, in which case 'that is' can also be removed – iamjustnobody Sep 24 at 22:46

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