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Do we need to put 在 before 明天 三点钟 星期五 in such sentences like 早在八月我们就开发了一个愿型,or 我是在1997年喜欢上汉语 or 我在八月到的上海?

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It depends on whether you use the time term as independent qualifier (can't add 在) or as part of a phrase, especially the prepositional phrase (在 usually must be added), and my suggestion is to avoid this type.

我是在1997年喜欢上汉语 vs 我(是)1997年喜欢上汉语(的), 是 and 的 purely for emphasizing;

我在八月到的上海 vs 我八月到(的)上海, again, 的 for emphasizing.

Also, I recommended try to avoid using 在 at the beginning of a sentence whether to introduce time or place, unless you really want to emphasize "among/during":

在北京,八月最热。 在八月,北京最热。 both sound weird, right?

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Yes, you can put in your examples. And...

  1. Pay attention to words like today/tomorrow, you can only add when the time goes as a noun rather an adverb.
    希望就在明天
    明天会更美好: do not put before.

  2. In particular, for the first example, must be added, check the differences below.
    早在八月...: since August.
    早八月...: error.
    (在)八月初...: in early August.

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在北京,八月最热。 在八月,北京最热。 both sound weird, right? 

It's no problem for native user.

e.g.

Q1: 北京一年裡最熱甚麼時候? 
A1: 在北京,八月最熱。

Q2: 八月中國哪邊最熱?
A2: 在八月,北京最熱。

Q3: 我今天傍晚可以跟你見個面嗎?
A3: 在七點的時候我跟朋友會在台北101吃飯,你早點來,我們可以聊一下。
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