Wiktionary isn't certain whether the Chinese 蘑菇 (mógū) is a loanword from Mongolian мөөг (möög) or vice-versa. Both mean "mushroom" and are pronounced very similarly so there's clearly some relationship, but I don't know which came first. I can't find any reliable English-language source that addresses this, and my Chinese level is insufficient to research in Chinese-language sources. It seems more plausible to me that the Mongolian word comes from Chinese, as many Mongolian vegetable words are loanwords from Chinese, but I don't have any resource to support that.

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    languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=43460 Christopher Atwood said, "The general consensus among Mongolists is that Mongolian möögü "mushroom" is more likely to be a loan word from Chinese than the other way around. This is because of the way it is written." He also elaborates further afterwards. – Mou某 Feb 16 at 3:51

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