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In mathematics, when we introduce variables in expressions we might say, for example, "F=ma, for m the mass and a the acceleration." How would you translate the "for" here? Equivalently we could say "with m the mass...".

I was considering 以 or 为, with "F=ma,以质量m..." or "F=ma,质量为m...". If neither of these is appropriate, what is appropriate here?

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'for' in your sentence functions more like 'about' than 'with'.

F=ma

for 'm' the mass and (for) 'a' the acceleration = about 'm', it refers to mass; about 'a', it refers to 'the acceleration'

至于'm', 指的是质量, 至于'a', 指的是加速度 --> 'm', 指的是质量, 'a' 指的是加速度 (omit 至于 in this sentence make it sound more natural in Chinese)

If you want to use 'with' instead, your sentence would become

F=ma

with 'm' (as) the mass and with 'a' (as) the acceleration

'm'(为)质量, 'a'(为)加速度

I think the sentence below is easier to translate

F=ma

'm' represents the mass and 'a' represents the acceleration

'm' 代表质量,'a' 代表加速度

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"F=ma, for m the mass and a the acceleration."

F = ma, 在其中 'm' 是质量,'a' 是加速度.

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