How does 稱's 2021 meanings appertain to its semantic component 禾?
The meanings which aren't related to weighing are not really related to 「禾」 - these meanings were actually held by 「爯」. 「稱」 and 「爯」 are related by the following:
- 「稱」 is a complexification of 「爯」.
- 「爯」 originally meant to lift up. This was eventually semantically extended to to commend, to praise, then to call, to name.
- 「爯」 later acquired the meaning to weigh.
- 「爯」 has now been totally replaced by 「稱」, so 「稱」 has acquired most/all senses of what was originally represented by 「爯」.
「爯」 depicts a hand 「爫・爪」 grabbing a fish 「魚」 upwards (e.g. out of the water), indicating the original meaning to lift up, to raise up. Occasionally, 「爯」 was complexified with extra components, which don't survive today.
The meaning to lift up, to raise up is given in e.g. 《甲骨文合集》32420:
Divination on the day of dīngmǎo, it is asked: "Shall the king offer up a ceremonial jade weapon, conduct a burning ritual with three penned sheep, and perform a slaughtering ritual......penned cattle?"
Very early on, 「爯」 or its variations started also acquiring the meaning to weigh. From the Late Warring States State of Jìn artefact 信安君鼎《殷周金文集成》2773:
[DǏNG VESSEL] OF THE BUTLER FOR THE LORD OF XÌN'ĀN
Vessel capacity: half a dǒu
Officer on duty: 欨
Vessel bronzesmith: 癐
[Date:] Year 12
Vessel weight: 2 yì and 6 jīn
Since 「爯」 had taken up too many meanings, semantic components were sometimes piled on to the character to disambiguate the uses:
「偁」 was created emphasise the meaning to lift, raise > to praise, by drawing a person 「人」 behind the hand 「爫・爪」:
「稱」 was created by adding semantic 「禾」 (crops), as weighing crops and grain from harvest was a common and important activity in Ancient China.
Unfortunately, the character 「偁」 fell into disuse, so 「稱」 in turn also became overloaded. This was probably the major reason for the creation of 「秤」, which is only used for meanings to do with weighing, balance, scales, and not used for the overloaded meanings to raise, to praise, to call that 「稱」 had taken on.