Glyph origins of 「摔」
「摔」 (Mandarin Pinyin: shuāi, to throw down) is comprised of semantic 「手・扌」 and phonetic 「率」 (shuài). The meaning to tumble is a semantic extension (to throw down > to drop, to fall > to tumble).
Glyph origins of 「率」
Glyph evolution table
Shape descriptions of the original characters
「率」 originally depicted a long length of intertwining threads 「糸」 and small dots/markings representing bits of extra thread, indicating the original meaning thick rope. This word is now written as 「繂」 (Zhengzhang OC: /*rud/, Mandarin Pinyin: lǜ). This survives as the Series B characters.
Very early on, this character was also used for the meaning to lead (Zhengzhang OC: /*sruds/, Mandarin Pinyin: shuài), either as a phonetic loan or semantic extension (large rope > to drag, to pull > to lead).
To emphasise the meaning to lead, the small markings were sometimes corrupted into semantic 「行」 (picture of a road intersection > to walk). This forms the basis of the Series A characters.
Glyph evolution description of the modern shapes
The upper and lower portions of the 「糸」 part of the original character(s) later had long horizontal lines drawn on them, probably as decorative strokes, leading on to the modern shape of 「率」 and all characters containing 「率」.
- Series A characters (including 「𧗿」) are not used in modern Chinese - the original character 「率」 has also completely taken over all senses originally represented by Series A characters.
- 「率」 (Zhengzhang OC: /*sruds/, Mandarin Pinyin: shuài; to lead) should be seen as representing the same word as 「帥」 (Zhengzhang OC: /*sruds/, Mandarin Pinyin: shuài; to lead). 「率」 and 「帥」 appear in different multi-character words/phrases due to a long history of writing habits more than anything else.
- The meaning ratio (Zhengzhang OC: /*rud/, Mandarin Pinyin: lǜ) may also be seen as either a phonetic loan, or a further semantic extension (to lead > to set standards > to calculate > ratio).