My 15-year-old daughter is learning Chinese, but these different terms baffle us! How do they differ? Where do these other terms fit into Table 3.5, which contains merely four of the terms in the title of this question?
Chinese S.E. (this site) has glyph-origin! Tzu-Ray Su, Hung-Yi Lee's Learning Chinese Word Representations From Glyphs Of Characters mentions glyphs.
This U. Albany website on Chinese characters mentions pictograms and logograms.
This U.C. Berkley website on Chinese characters mentions pictograms and ideograms.
page 295 in Henry Rogers' book Writing Systems defines
morphogram. A single grapheme of a morphographic writing system. A grapheme which represents a morpheme of the language.
page 298 of this book defines
symbol. A general term for a graphic mark without regard to its graphemic status.
Henry Rogers, Writing Systems (2004), p 27.