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Could the phrase 事業心 be applied to a noun that means something like a “craftsman” (技工) or possibly artisan? How might I say “a dedicated craftsman” with “dedicated” in the sense of “focused and with high values” on the craft?

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事 - thing, matter, work, that one does.

業 - occupation, business, trade, that will bring in and accumulate wealth.

事業 - an accomplishment/establishment of a person, through his work or business, that is measurable by his accumulated wealth. In the past, the craftsperson's line of work was not considered to have the potential to achieve that in his lifetime, though the line of thinking has gradually changed these days, I still wouldn't use 有事業心 to describe a craftsperson.

"dedicated in the sense of focused and with high values on the craft", I don't know what you mean by "high values", so I'll try the two sentences below:

他是一個有上進心(進取心)的工藝家, 專心一意的(focused and dedicated)去製造高價值(high value)的工藝品.

他是一個有上進心(進取心)的工藝家, 對自己的技藝有很高的期許(has high value/expectation of his skill/work),所以在工作中相當專注和投入(focused and dedicated).

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dedicated: wholly committed to something, as to an ideal, political cause, or personal goal, from Dictionary.com, 2016 snapshot - 尽心尽力的,尽职尽责的

事業心 could mean dedicated, but in this context it is likely to be misinterpreted as 'enterprise', which emphasises on self, e.g. the money one gains, while 'dedicated' on the art, the technique and how loyal one is towards their job.

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