稻：the plant from which rice is harvested. Depending on the amount of water it needs to grow, there are 水稻 and 旱稻。
稻穀(谷)：the grains harvested from the plant.
稻殼(売)：husk/hull, the outer, inedible part of 稻穀。
糙米：the grain without the husk.
胚芽米：the grain without the husk and bran. It's less nutritious than 糙米。
米／大米／白米：endosperm/white rice, the grain without the husk, bran, and germ. It's less nutritious than 胚芽米。 Birds eat 米, people don't.
糙米飯：飯 obtained from cooking 糙米。
飯／白飯／米飯：米cooked with proper amount of water to yield a product without visible water. One hundred grams of 米 typically yield two hundred grams of 飯。
粥：porridge/congee, 米cooked with more water than above to give a gooey product, usually with visible 飯粒 in it.
稀飯：it could mean 1)粥, or 2) 粥 with even more water.