I'm reading about literacy in China, and encounter the terms 净入学率 and 毛入学率, but I'm unclear on their precise meaning:

CC-CEDICT: 净 (jìng​) ... / net (income, exports etc) / ...
CC-CEDICT: 毛 (máo) ... / raw / ...
CC-CEDICT: 入学率 (rù​xué​lǜ​) percentage of children who enter school

The above seem to be the closest relevant definition. Putting the terms into Youdao gives "net enrollment rate" and "gross enrollment rate". I have no idea what the difference here is.

Moreover this news article lists a 毛入学率 of 102.5%, which sounds mathematically impossible.

Screenshot of a news article showing a 毛入学率 of 102.5%
从“文盲大国”到教育大国 新中国最大程度实现了教育公平,中国青年报,2021年06月21日

Question: Precisely what do 净入学率 (~"net enrollment rate") and 毛入学率 (~"gross enrollment rate") mean?

  • Gross - 总量, 总额 (n); 总的 (adj). 毛 - hair, fur, mane. The gross enrollment rate should be 总入学率, I've never heard of 毛入学率, but it might be defined in China with special meaning so that the gross rate can be > 100%.
    – r13
    Aug 24, 2021 at 0:30
  • This article can help. rich01.com/1-profit-margin
    – r13
    Aug 24, 2021 at 0:48
  • From the article cited above, 毛利率 =(營業收入-營業成本)/營業收入 x 100%, we can rewrite as 毛入学率 = (現下入学人數 - 過去入学人數)/現下入学人數 x 100%, since typically the result in ( ) will be less than the denominator unless the past number of enrolled student is negative, the listed rate does not make sense.
    – r13
    Aug 24, 2021 at 1:18
  • Okay, it can make sense if 毛入学率 is defined as the "net growth rate" of student enrollment, 毛入学率 = (現下入学人數 - 過去入学人數)/**過去入学人數** x 100%, so the result can be greater than 100%.
    – r13
    Aug 24, 2021 at 1:46
  • Wouldn't a Baidu search answer the question? It's just a way that Government measures the enrollment rate.
    – dan
    Aug 24, 2021 at 5:26

1 Answer 1


初中阶段净入学率 = × 100%

初中阶段毛入学率 =
× 100%

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